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From the completely new, exceptional art program, to the complete integration of the text with technology, Saladin has formed a teaching solution that will both motivate and enable your students to understand and appreciate the wonders of anatomy and physiology. This distinctive text was developed to stand apart from all other A&P texts with unparalleled art, a writing style that has been acclaimed by both users and reviewers and clinical coverage that offers the perfect balance without being too much. Saladin's well-accepted organization of topics is based upon the most logical physiological ties between body systems. The text requires no prior knowledge of college chemistry or cell biology, and is designed for a two-semester A&P college course.
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Saladin: Anatomy &
Physiology: The Unity of
Form and Function, Third

Front Matter

© The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2003


Thank you to the colleagues and students who have
made this textbook so successful and helped to ensure
its staying power in a very competitive textbook niche.
Several people have asked me, with this book doing so
well, why I don’t retire from the classroom. The answer
is that not only do I find classroom teaching the most fulfilling aspect of my profession, but also that it is my students who teach me how to write. I work continually at
finding more and more effective ways of getting concepts across to them, at turning on the light of insight.
The best ideas for communicating difficult physiological
ideas often come to mind during my face-to-face interactions with students, and many are the times that I have
dashed back from the lecture room to the drawing pad or
keyboard to sketch concepts for new illustrations or
write down new explanations. Grading exams and
homework assignments also continually gives me new
impressions of whether I have effectively taught an idea
through my writing. Thus, my students are my unwitting
writing teachers. This pertains also to the students in my
“extended classroom”—students worldwide who use
the book and write to ask my help in understanding difficult concepts.
What are the improvements in this edition? I continue to aim for ever-better clarity, brevity, currency, and
accuracy. Physiology, especially, is a complex subject to
explain to beginning students, and I am always working
in both the lecture room and textbook to find clearer ways
to explain it. Physiology also is a fast-growing field, and
it’s a challenge to keep a book up to date without it growing longer and longer. After all, our lecture periods and
semesters aren’t getting any longer! So, while updating
information, I have looked for ways to make my discussions more concise in each edition. I also continue to correct errors as students and content experts have sent ; me
queries, corrections, and suggestions. Accuracy is, of
course, an advantage of a seasoned textbook over a newcomer, and this book has gained a lot of seasoning and a
little spice from my extensive correspondence with students and colleagues.
This preface describes the book’s intended audience,
how we determined what students and instructors want in
the ideal A&P textbook, what has changed in this edition
to best meet your needs, how this book differs from others,
and what supplements are available to round out the total
teaching package.

This book is meant especially for students who plan to
pursue such careers as nursing, therapy, health education,
medicine, and other health professions. It is designed for
a two-semester combined anatomy and physiology course
and assumes that the reader has taken no prior college
chemistry or biology courses. I also bear in mind that
many A&P students return to college after interruptions to
raise families or pursue other careers. For returning students and those without college prerequisites, the early
chapters will serve as a refresher on the necessary points
of chemistry and cell biology.
Many A&P students also are still developing the
intellectual skills and study habits necessary for success
in a health science curriculum. There are many, too, for
whom English was not their original language. Therefore,
I endeavor to write in a style that is clear, concise, and
enjoyable to read, and to enliven the facts of science with
analogies, clinical remarks, historical notes, biographical
vignettes, and other seasoning that will make the book
enjoyable to students and instructors alike. Each chapter
is built around pedagogic strategies that will make the subject attainable for a wide range of students and instill the
study and thinking habits conducive to success in more
advanced courses.

How We Evaluated Your Needs
This book has evolved through extensive research on the
needs and likes of A&P students and instructors. In developing its three editions so far, we have collected evaluative questionnaires from reviewers; commissioned
detailed reviews from instructors using this book and
those using competing books; held focus groups from
coast to coast in the United States, in which instructors
and students studied the book in advance, then met with
us to discuss it in depth for several hours, including how
it compared to other leading A&P textbooks; and created
panels of A&P instructors to thoroughly analyze the entire
book and its art program. These efforts have involved
many hundreds of faculty and students and generated
thousands of pages of reviews, all of which I have read
carefully in developing my revision plans. In a less formal

Saladin: Anatomy &
Physiology: The Unity of
Form and Function, Third

Front Matter

© The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2003



way, the book has improved because of the many e-mails I
receive from instructors and students worldwide who not
only tell me what they like about it, but also raise suggestions for correction or improvement. I’ve responded generously to these e-mails because I learn a great deal looking up answers to readers’ questions, finding sources to
substantiate the book’s content, and sometimes finding
that I need to update, clarify, or correct a point.

How We’ve Met Your Needs
Our research has consistently revealed that the three qualities instructors value most in a textbook are, in descending order of importance, writing style, illustration quality,
and teaching supplements. I have focused my attention
especially on the first two of these and on pedagogic features, while McGraw-Hill Higher Education has continually engaged other authors and software developers to produce a more diverse package of superb supplements for
students and instructors.

Writing Style
Students benefit most from a book they enjoy reading, a
book that goes beyond presenting information to also tell
an interesting story and engage the reader with a somewhat conversational tone. That was my guiding principle
in finding the right voice for the first edition, and it
remains so in this one. I try to steer a middle course,
avoiding rigid formality on one hand or a chatty condescending tone on the other. I feel I have succeeded when
students describe the tone as friendly, engaging, colloquial, almost as if the author is talking to them, but not
talking down to them.
In devising ways to make the writing more concise
without losing the qualities that make it interesting and
enjoyable, I have been guided by reviewers who identified
areas in need of less detail and by students who cited certain areas as especially engrossing and pleasurable to read.
In this edition, I somewhat reduced the number of boldfaced terms and the amount of vocabulary, and fine-tuned
such mechanics as sentence length, paragraph breaks, and
topic and transitional sentences for improved flow. In
such difficult topics as action potentials, blood clotting,
the countercurrent multiplier, or aerobic respiration, I
think this book will compare favorably in a side-by-side
reading of competing textbooks.


illustrative concepts not found in other books. Professional medical illustrators and graphic artists have rendered these, as well as the classic themes of A&P, in a vivid
and captivating style that has contributed a lot to a student’s desire to learn.
As the book has evolved through these three editions, I have used larger figures and brighter colors;
adopted simpler, uncluttered labeling; and continued to
incorporate innovative illustrative concepts. A good illustration conveys much more information than several times
as much space filled with verbiage, and I have cut down
on the word count of the book to allow space for larger and
more informative graphics.
The illustration program is more than line art. I continue to incorporate better histological photography and
cadaver dissections, including many especially clear and
skillful dissections commissioned specifically for this book.
Several of my students have modeled for photographs in this book. As much as possible with the volunteers who came forth, I have represented an ethnic variety
of subjects.

The third most highly rated quality is the package of learning supplements for the student and teaching aids for the
instructor. Instructors have rated overhead transparencies
the most important of all supplements, and we now include
transparencies of every item of line art in the book, and
some of the photographs and tables. Included are unlabeled
duplicates of many anatomical figures, useful for testing or
labeling to fit one’s individual teaching approach. A full set
of both labeled and unlabeled illustrations is also available
in the Instructor’s Presentation CD-ROM.
Students have expressed growing enthusiasm and
appreciation for the Online Learning Center and the
Essential Study Partner. We have continued to enrich
these media with an abundance of learning aids and
resources. These and other student and instructor supplements are listed and described on page xiii.

What Sets This Book Apart?
Those who have not used or reviewed previous editions
will want to know how this book differs from others.



When I was a child, it was the art and photography in biology books that most strongly inspired me to want to learn
about the subject. So it comes as no surprise that students
and instructors rate the visual appeal of this book as second only to writing style in importance. I developed many

The sequence of chapters and placement of some topics in
this book differ from others. While I felt it was risky to
depart from tradition in my first edition, reviewer comments have overwhelmingly supported my intuition that
these represent a more logical way of presenting the

Saladin: Anatomy &
Physiology: The Unity of
Form and Function, Third


Front Matter

© The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2003



human A&P. Indeed, some have written that they are
changing their teaching approach because of this book.

I treat the most basic concepts of heredity in chapter 4 rather
than waiting, as most books do, until the last chapter. Students would be ill-prepared to understand color blindness,
blood types, hemophilia, sex determination, and other topics
if they didn’t already know about such concepts as dominant
and recessive alleles, sex chromosomes, and sex linkage.

opening page of each chapter. These fall into three categories: 101 clinical applications, 13 on medical history,
and 9 on evolutionary medicine. For a quick survey of
their subject matter, see the lists under these three phrases
in the index.

Clinical Applications

I treat gross anatomy of the muscular system (chapter 10)
immediately after the skeletal system and joints in order to
tie it closely to the structures on which the muscles act
and to relate muscle actions to the terminology of joint
movements. This is followed by muscle physiology and
then neurophysiology so that these two topics can be
closely integrated in their discussions of synapses, neurotransmitters, and membrane potentials.

It is our primary task in A&P to teach the basic biology of
the human body, not pathology. Yet students want to
know the relevance of this biology—how it relates to
their career aims. Furthermore, disease often gives us our
most revealing window on the importance of normal
structure and function. What could better serve than cystic fibrosis, for example, to drive home the importance of
membrane ion pumps? What better than brittle bone disease to teach the importance of collagen in the osseous
tissue? The great majority of Insight sidebars therefore
deal with the clinical relevance of the basic biology. Clinical content has also been enhanced by the addition of a
table for each organ system that describes common
pathologies and page-references others.

Nervous System Chapters

Medical History

Many instructors cite the nervous system as the most difficult one for students to understand, and in many
courses, it is presented in a hurry before the clock runs out
on the first semester. Other A&P textbooks devote six
chapters or more to this system. It is overwhelming to both
the instructor and student to cover this much material at
the end of the course. I present this system in five chapters, and notwithstanding my assignment of a separate
chapter to the autonomic nervous system in this edition,
this is still the most concise treatment of this system
among the similar two-semester textbooks.

I found long ago that students especially enjoyed lectures in
which I remarked on the personal dramas that enliven the
history of medicine. Thus, I incorporated that approach into
my writing as well, emulating something that is standard
fare in introductory biology textbooks but has been largely
absent from A&P textbooks. Reviews have shown that students elsewhere, like my own, especially like these stories.
I have composed 13 historical and biographical vignettes to
have an especially poignant or inspiring quality, give students a more humanistic perspective on the field they’ve
chosen to study, and, I hope, to cultivate an appropriately
thoughtful attitude toward the discipline. Historical
remarks are also scattered through the general text.
Profiles of Marie Curie (p. 58), Rosalind Franklin
(p. 132), and Charles Drew (p. 694) tell of the struggles and
unkind ironies of their scientific careers. Some of my
favorite historical sidebars are the accounts of William Beaumont’s digestive experiments on “the man with a hole in his
stomach” (p. 977); Crawford Long’s pioneering surgical use
of ether, until then known mainly as a party drug (p. 628);
the radical alteration of Phineas Gage’s personality by his
brain injury (p. 538); and the testy relationship between the
men who shared a Nobel Prize for the discovery of insulin,
Frederick Banting and J. J. R. MacLeod (p. 671).

Muscle Anatomy and Physiology

Urinary System
Most textbooks place the urinary system near the end
because of its anatomical association with the reproductive
system. I feel that its intimate physiological ties with the
circulatory and respiratory systems are much more important than this anatomical issue. The respiratory and urinary systems collaborate to regulate the pH of the body fluids; the kidneys have more impact than any other organ on
blood volume and pressure; and the principles of capillary
fluid exchange should be fresh in the mind of a student
studying glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption.
Except for an unavoidable detour to discuss the lymphatic
and immune systems, I treat the respiratory and urinary
systems as soon as possible after the circulatory system.

“Insight” Sidebars
Each chapter has from two to six special topic sidebars
called Insights, listed by title and page number on the

Evolutionary Medicine
The human body can never be fully appreciated without a
sense of how and why it came to be as it is. Medical literature since the mid-1990s has shown increasing interest in
“evolutionary medicine,” but most A&P textbooks continue to disregard it. Chapter 1 briefly introduces the con-

Saladin: Anatomy &
Physiology: The Unity of
Form and Function, Third

Front Matter

© The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2003



cept of natural selection and how certain human adaptations relate to our biological past. Later chapters have nine
Evolutionary Medicine insights and shorter evolutionary
remarks in the main body of text. Students will find novel
and intriguing ways of looking at such topics as mitochondria (p. 124), hair (p. 204), skeletal anatomy (p. 286),
body odors (p. 595), the taste for sweets (p. 990), the
nephron loop (p. 897), lactose intolerance (p. 970),
menopause (p. 1060), and senescence (p. 1114).

Several features of this book are designed to facilitate the
student’s learning.

Learning Objectives
I divide each chapter into typically five or six segments of
just a few pages each, with a list of learning objectives at
the beginning and a list of “Before You Go On” content
review questions at the end of each one. This enables students to set tangible goals for short study periods and to
assess their progress before moving on.

Vocabulary Aids
A&P students must assimilate a large working vocabulary.
This is far easier and more meaningful if they can pronounce words correctly and if they understand the roots
that compose them. Chapter 1 now has a section, “The
Language of Medicine,” which I hope will help get students into the habit of breaking new words into familiar
roots, and help them appreciate the importance of precision in spelling and word use. Pronunciation guides are
given parenthetically when new words are introduced,
using a “pro-NUN-see-AY-shun” format that is easy for
students to interpret. New terms are accompanied by footnotes that identify their roots and origins, and a lexicon of
about 400 most commonly used roots and affixes appears
in appendix C (p. A-7).

Self-Testing Questions
Each chapter has about 75 to 90 self-testing questions in
various formats and three levels of difficulty: recall,
description, and analysis or application. The ability to
recall terms and facts is tested by 20 multiple choice and
sentence completion questions in the chapter review. The
ability to describe concepts is tested by the “Before You Go
On” questions at the ends of the chapter subdivisions,
totaling about 20 to 30 such questions per chapter. The
ability to analyze and apply ideas and to relate concepts in
different chapters to each other is tested by an average of 5
“Think About It” questions at intervals throughout each
chapter, 5 “Testing Your Comprehension” essay questions


at the end of the chapter, 10 “True/False” questions in the
chapter review that require the student to analyze why the
false statements are untrue, and usually 5 questions per
chapter in the figure legends, prompting the student to analyze or extrapolate from information in the illustrations. A
great number and variety of additional questions are available to students at the Online Learning Center.

System Interrelationships
Most instructors would probably agree on the need to
emphasize the interrelationships among organ systems
and to discourage the idea that a system can be put out of
one’s mind after a test is over. This book reinforces the
interdependence of the organ systems in three ways.
1. Beginning with chapter 3 (p. 93), each chapter has
a “Brushing Up” box that lists concepts from
earlier chapters that one should understand before
moving on. This may also be useful to students
who are returning to college and need to freshen
up concepts studied years before, and to
instructors who teach the systems in a different
order than the book does. It also reinforces the
continuity between A&P I and II.
2. For each organ system, there is a “Connective
Issues” feature (p. 212, for example) that
summarizes ways in which that system influences
all of the others of the body, and how it is
influenced by them in turn.
3. Chapter 29 includes a section, “Senescence of the
Organ Systems,” which can serve as a “capstone
lesson” that compellingly shows how the agerelated degeneration of each system influences, and
is influenced by, the others. Senescence is an
increasingly important topic for health-care
providers as the population increases in average
age. This section should sensitize readers not only
to the issues of gerontology, but also to measures
they can take at a young age to ensure a better
quality of life later on. For instructors who prefer to
treat senescence of each organ system separately
throughout the course, earlier chapters cite the
relevant pages of this senescence discussion.

What’s New?
I’ve been cautious about reorganizing the book and tampering with a structure that has been responsible for its
success. Nevertheless, the voices of many reviewers have
convinced me that a few changes were in order.

Changes in Chapter Sequence
I made two changes in chapter sequencing and numbering:

Saladin: Anatomy &
Physiology: The Unity of
Form and Function, Third


Front Matter

© The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2003



Nervous System Chapters

Content Changes

The most frequent request has been to give the autonomic
nervous system a chapter of its own, with slightly deeper
coverage. I have done so at chapter 15. Another common
request I’ve accommodated has been to discuss the spinal
cord and spinal nerves together in one chapter (now chapter 13) and the brain and cranial nerves together in another
(now chapter 14).

I have strengthened the coverage of the following topics
(indicating chapter numbers in parentheses): mitochondrial diseases (3), autoimmune diseases (5), the stages of
hair growth (6), biomechanics of bone tissue (7), the enteric
nervous system (15), receptive fields of sensory neurons
(16), hormone-transport proteins (17), the blood-thymus
barrier (21), clonal deletion and anergy (21), renal autoregulation (23), lipostats and leptin (26), and the trisomies (29).
I have updated information on the following, drawing
on research and review literature as recent as April 2002,
even as the book was in production: genetic translation in
the nucleus (4), signal peptides (4), stem cell research (5),
hair analysis (6), osteoporosis treatments (7), knee surgery
(9), muscle–connective tissue relationships (11), mitosis in
cardiac muscle (11), astrocyte functions (12), surgical treatment of parkinsonism (12), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
(13), memory consolidation (14), functional MRI (14), the
sensory role of filiform papillae (16), a new class of retinal
photoreceptors (16), the history of anesthesia (16), the relationship of growth hormone to somatomedins (17), cytotoxic T cell activation (21), asthma (21), neuroimmunology
(21), atrial natriuretic peptide (23), hunger and body
weight homeostasis (26), heritability of alcoholism (26),
the functions of relaxin (28), contraceptive options (28),
the fate of sperm mitochondria (29), Werner syndrome (29),
telomeres (29), and theories of aging (29).

To compensate for the added nervous system chapter without making the book longer, and because many reviewers
felt that the book could do without two full chapters of
chemistry, I condensed the coverage of chemistry by about
25% and combined the two former chemistry chapters into
one (now chapter 2). This results in a change of chapter
numbers from 3 through 15, but from chapter 16 to the end,
the numbers are the same as in the previous editions.

Changes in Chapter Organization
In three cases, I felt that a subject could be presented more
effectively by rearrangements and content substitutions
within a chapter. Other chapters continue to be organized
as they were in the second edition.

Chapter 1, Major Themes of Anatomy
and Physiology
Here I replaced the section on human taxonomic classification with sections on anatomical and physiological
variability. This gives the chapter a less zoological and
more clinical flavor. Also, I feel it is important at the outset of such a course to instill a sense of the familiar roots
of biomedical terms, the importance of precision in
spelling, and other aspects of vocabulary. Thus I moved
the former appendix B, which introduced students to
medical etymology, to chapter 1 (“The Language of Medicine,” p. 19).

Chapter 17, The Endocrine System
As many reviewers desired, I have separated endocrine
pathology from normal physiology and placed the pathology at the end of the chapter.

Chapter 21, The Lymphatic and
Immune Systems
I have found it more effective to present cellular immunity
before humoral immunity, since humoral immunity
depends on some concepts such as helper T cells usually
introduced in the context of cellular immunity.

Issues of Terminology
In 1999, the Terminologia Anatomica (TA) replaced the
Nomina Anatomica as the international standard for
anatomical terminology. I have updated the terminology
in this edition accordingly, except in cases where TA terminology is, as yet, so unfamiliar that it may be more a
hindrance than a help for an introductory anatomy course.
For example, I use the unofficial femur rather than the official os femoris or femoral bone.
The TA no longer recognizes eponyms, and I have
avoided using them when possible and practical (using
tactile disc instead of Merkel disc, for example). I do introduce common eponyms parenthetically when a term is
first used. Some eponyms are, of course, unavoidable
(Alzheimer disease, Golgi complex) and in some cases it
still seems preferable to use the eponyms because of familiarity and correlation with other sources that students will
read (for example, Schwann cell rather than neurilemmocyte).
I follow the recommendation of the American Medical Association Manual of Style (ninth edition, 1998) to
delete the possessive forms of nearly all eponyms. There
are people who take offense at the possessive form Down’s
syndrome and yet may be equally insistent that
Alzheimer’s disease be in the possessive. The AMA has
grappled with such inconsistencies for years, and I accept

Saladin: Anatomy &
Physiology: The Unity of
Form and Function, Third

Front Matter


© The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2003


its recommendation that the possessives be dropped
whenever possible. I make exception for a few cases such
as Broca’s area (which would be awkward to pronounce
without the ’s) and I retain the possessive form for natural
laws (Boyle’s law).

Pedagogic Changes
I have made the following changes in pedagogy; see the
referenced pages for examples of each:
• Added icons to the histological illustrations in chapter
5 to show a place where each tissue can be found
(pp. 162–163).
• Added thought questions to some figure legends
(usually five per chapter) and provided answers to
these at the end of the chapter (p. 91).

Na+ 145 mEq/L
4 mEq/L

Na+ 12 mEq/L
K+ 155 mEq/L


Large anions
that cannot
escape cell

Figure 12.9 Ionic Basis of the Resting Membrane Potential.
Note that sodium ions are much more concentrated in the extracellular
fluid (ECF) than in the intracellular fluid (ICF), while potassium ions are
more concentrated in the ICF. Large anions unable to penetrate the plasma
membrane give the cytoplasm a negative charge relative to the ECF.
If we suddenly increased the concentration of Clⴚ ions in the
ICF, would the membrane potential become higher or lower
than the RMP?


Suggestions Still Welcome!
Many features of this book, and many refinements in the
writing, illustrations, and factual content, came about
because of suggestions and questions from instructors and
their students. In addition, many things that were tried
experimentally in the first edition have been retained in
the later editions because of positive feedback from users.
But perfection in textbook writing seems to be an asymptote, ever approached but never fully reached. I invite my
colleagues and students everywhere to continue offering
such valuable and stimulating feedback as I continue the
Ken Saladin
Dept. of Biology
Georgia College & State University
Milledgeville, Georgia 31061 (USA)

Teaching and Learning
McGraw-Hill offers various tools and technology products to support the third edition of Anatomy & Physiology. Students can order supplemental study materials by
contacting their local bookstore. Instructors can obtain
teaching aids by calling the Customer Service Department, at 800-338-3987, visiting our A&P website at
www.mhhe.com/ap, or contacting their local McGrawHill sales representative.

For the Instructor:
Instructor’s Presentation CD-ROM
• For each organ system, added a table of pathologies
which briefly describes several of the most common
dysfunctions and cites pages where other dysfunctions
of that system are mentioned elsewhere in the book
(p. 208).
• Changed the chapter reviews from an outline to a
narrative format that briefly restates the key points of
the chapter (p. 125).
• Shortened the end-of-chapter vocabulary lists, which
no longer list all boldfaced terms in a chapter, but only
those terms that I deemed most important (p. 126).
• Added 10 true/false questions to each chapter review,
with a prompt to explain why the false questions are
untrue (p. 127). The answers to these are in appendix
B (p. A-2).

This multimedia collection of visual resources allows
instructors to utilize artwork from the text in multiple formats to create customized classroom presentations, visually based tests and quizzes, dynamic course website content, or attractive printed support materials. The digital
assets on this cross-platform CD-ROM are grouped by
chapter within the following easy-to-use folders.
Art Library Full-color digital files of all
illustrations in the book, plus the same art saved in
unlabeled and gray scale versions, can be readily
incorporated into lecture presentations, exams, or
custom-made classroom materials. These images are
also pre-inserted into blank PowerPoint slides for
ease of use.
Photo Library Digital files of instructionally
significant photographs from the text—including

Saladin: Anatomy &
Physiology: The Unity of
Form and Function, Third


Front Matter

© The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2003



cadaver, bone, histology, and surface anatomy
images—can be reproduced for multiple
classroom uses.
PowerPoint Lecture Outlines Ready-made
presentations that combine art and lecture notes are
provided for each of the 29 chapters of the text.
Written by Sharon Simpson, Broward Community
College, these lectures can be used as they are, or
can be tailored to reflect your preferred lecture
topics and sequences.
Table Library Every table that appears in the text is
provided in electronic form.
In addition to the content found within each chapter, the
Instructor’s Presentation CD-ROM for Anatomy & Physiology
contains the following multimedia instructional materials:
Active Art Library Active Art consists of art files
from key figures from the book that have been
converted to a format that allows the artwork to be
edited inside of Microsoft PowerPoint. Each piece of
art inside an Active Art presentation can be broken
down to its core elements, grouped or ungrouped,
and edited to create customized illustrations.
Animations Library Numerous full-color
animations illustrating physiological processes are
provided. Harness the visual impact of processes in
motion by importing these files into classroom
presentations or online course materials.

customized exams. This user-friendly program allows
instructors to search for questions by topic, format, or difficulty level; edit existing questions or add new ones; and
scramble questions and answer keys for multiple versions
of the same test. Although few textbook authors write their
own test banks, this test bank, written by the author himself better reflects the textbook than one contracted out to
an independent writer.
Other assets on the Instructor’s Testing and Resource
CD-ROM are grouped within easy-to-use folders. The
Instructor’s Manual and the Instructor’s Manual to accompany the Laboratory Manual are available in both Word
and PDF formats. Word files of the test bank are included
for those instructors who prefer to work outside of the testgenerator software.

Laboratory Manual
The Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory Manual by Eric
Wise of Santa Barbara City College is expressly written to
coincide with the chapters of Anatomy & Physiology. This
lab manual has been revised to include clearer explanations
of physiology experiments and computer simulations that
serve as alternatives to frog experimentation. Other
improvements include a greatly expanded set of review
questions at the end of each lab, plus numerous new photographs and artwork.

This exhaustive set of over 1,000 transparency overheads
includes every piece of line art in the textbook, tables, and
several key photographs. An additional set of 150 unlabeled line art duplicates is also available for testing purposes or custom labeling. Images are printed with better
visibility and contrast than ever before, and labels are
large and bold for clear projection.

English/Spanish Glossary
for Anatomy and Physiology
This complete glossary includes every key term used in a
typical 2-semester anatomy and physiology course. Definitions are provided in both English and Spanish. A phonetic guide to pronunciation follows each word in the

Instructor’s Testing and
Resource CD-ROM
This cross-platform CD-ROM provides a wealth of
resources for the instructor. Supplements featured on this
CD-ROM include a computerized test bank utilizing
Brownstone Dipoma@ testing software to quickly create

A Visual Atlas for Anatomy
and Physiology
This visual atlas contains key gross anatomy illustrations
that have been blown up in size to make it easier for students to learn anatomy.

Saladin: Anatomy &
Physiology: The Unity of
Form and Function, Third

Front Matter

© The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2003



Clinical Applications Manual
Expands on Anatomy and Physiology’s clinical themes,
introduces new clinical topics, and provides test questions and case studies to develop the student’s ability to
apply his or her knowledge to realistic situations.

Course Delivery Systems
With help from our partners, WebCT, Blackboard, TopClass, eCollege, and other course management systems,
professors can take complete control over their course
content. These course cartridges also provide online testing and powerful student tracking features. The Saladin
Online Learning Center is available within all of these


For more information on the outstanding online tools,
refer to the front endsheets of your textbook.

GradeSummit, found at www.gradesummit.com, is an
Internet-based self-assessment service that provides students and faculty with diagnostic information about subject strengths and weaknesses. This detailed feedback and
direction enables learners and teachers to focus study time
on areas where it will be most effective. GradeSummit also
enables instructors to measure their students’ progress
and assess that progress relative to others in their classes
and worldwide.

For the Student:
MediaPhys CD-ROM
This interactive tool offers detailed explanations, highquality illustrations, and animations to provide students
with a thorough introduction to the world of physiology—
giving them a virtual tour of physiological processes.
MediaPhys is filled with interactive activities and quizzes
to help reinforce physiology concepts that are often difficult to understand.

Student Study Guide
This comprehensive study guide written by Jacque
Homan, South Plains College, in collaboration with Ken
Saladin, contains vocabulary-building and content-testing
exercises, labeling exercises, and practice exams.

Online Learning Center
The Anatomy & Physiology Online Learning Center (OLC)
at www.mhhe.com/saladin3 offers access to a vast array of
premium online content to fortify the learning and teaching experience.
Essential Study Partner A collection of interactive
study modules that contains hundreds of
animations, learning activities, and quizzes
designed to help students grasp complex concepts.
Live News Feeds The OLC offers course specific
real-time news articles to help you stay current with
the latest topics in anatomy and physiology.

A textbook and supplements package on this scale is the
product of a well coordinated effort by many dedicated
people. I am deeply indebted to the team at McGraw-Hill
Higher Education who have shown continued faith in this
book and invested so generously in it.
For their unfailing encouragement and material support, I thank Vice President and Editor-in-Chief Michael
Lange and Publisher Marty Lange. My appreciation likewise goes out to Michelle Watnick for her years of energetic promotion of the book and lately her role as Sponsoring Editor, and to the legion of sales managers and sales
representatives who work so hard to get the book into the
hands of my fellow instructors and their students.
Kristine Tibbetts, Director of Development, has been
a wonderful editor with whom I’ve been very fortunate to

Saladin: Anatomy &
Physiology: The Unity of
Form and Function, Third


Front Matter

© The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2003



work for the past decade. The appearance of this book
owes a great deal to Kris’s attention to detail and her
uncompromising commitment to quality, accuracy, and
esthetics. Were it not for e-mail, our voluminous correspondence would have required the razing of entire forests
and probably would have detectably enhanced employment statistics for lumberjacks and postal carriers. Working closely with Kris and me, Designer K. Wayne Harms
also deserves a great deal of credit for the esthetic appeal
and readability of these pages.
Mary E. Powers, Senior Project Manager, has been
responsible for monitoring all aspects of the project, keeping
me and its many other contributors coordinated and moving
toward the book’s timely release. She, too, has been a very
alert reader of the entire manuscript and has spared no effort
to incorporate last-minute corrections and to change page
layouts for better figure placement and flow of text.
A good copyeditor makes one a better writer, and I
have learned a great deal from my copyeditors on all editions of this book. On this edition, it was Cathy Conroy’s
assiduous attention to detail, ranging from consistency in
anatomical synonyms down to the humblest punctuation
mark, that spared me from committing numerous embarrassing errors and inconsistencies.
And always high on my list at McGraw-Hill, I am
especially grateful to Colin Wheatley for his conviction,
over a decade ago, that I had a book in me, and for persuading me to give it a go. Few people have changed my
life so profoundly.
The line art in this edition was beautifully executed
by the medical illustrators and graphic artists of Imagineering STA Media Services in Toronto, under the watchful and knowledgeable eye of Jack Haley, Content/Art
Director. Imagineering illustrator Dustin Holmes produced the award-winning cover art for the previous edition and, not surprisingly, I was delighted with his execution of the new cover art for this edition. For the visual
appeal of this book, credit is also due to McGraw-Hill
Photo Coordinator John Leland and Photo Researcher
Mary T. Reeg, who worked hard to acquire photographs
that are clear, informative, and esthetically appealing. I
must also repeat my earlier thanks to anatomists Don Kincaid and Rebecca Gray of the Ohio State University
Department of Anatomy and Medical Education Morgue
for producing at my behest such clean, instructive dissections and clear cadaver photographs.

For photographs of living subjects, whenever possible I employed volunteers from among my own students
at Georgia College and State University. For kindly lending their bodies to the service of science, I thank my students, colleagues, friends, and family members: Laura
Ammons, Sharesia Bell, Elizabeth Brown, Amy Burmeister, Mae Carpenter, Valeria Champion, Kelli Costa, Adam
Fraley, Yashica Marshall, Diane Saladin, Emory Saladin,
Nicole Saladin, Dilanka Seimon, Natalie Spires, Xiaodan
Wang, Nathan Williams, and Danielle Wychoff. The
improved photographs of joint movements in this edition
(chapter 9), with their multiple-exposure effects, are by
Milledgeville photographer Tim Vacula.
Thanks once again to my colleagues David Evans and
Eric Wise for their fine work in producing the Instructor’s
Manual and Laboratory Manual, respectively. New thanks to
Leslie Miller, M. S. N., for reviewing the manuscript from a
clinical perspective and offering many helpful suggestions.
The factual content and accuracy of this edition owe
a great deal to colleagues who are more knowledgeable
than I in specific areas of human anatomy and physiology,
and to both colleagues and inquisitive students whose
e-mails and other queries sent me to the library to dig still
deeper into the literature. I have gained especially from
the lively and fruitful discussions on HAPP-L, the e-mail
list of the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society
(http://www.hapsweb.org); my heartfelt thanks go to the
many colleagues who have made HAPP-L such a stimulating and informative site, and to Jim Pendley for maintaining the list.
Once again, and first in my appreciation, I thank my
wife Diane, my son Emory, and my daughter Nicole, not only
for sharing with me in the rewards of writing, but also for
bearing up so graciously under the demands of having a fulltime author cloistered in the inner sanctum of the house.

No words could adequately convey my indebtedness and
gratitude to the hundreds of A&P instructors and experts
who have reviewed this book in all its editions, and who
have provided such a wealth of scientific information, corrections, suggestions for effective presentation, and encouragement. For making the book beautiful, I am indebted to
the team described earlier. For making it right, I am thankful to the colleagues listed on the following pages.

Saladin: Anatomy &
Physiology: The Unity of
Form and Function, Third

Front Matter

© The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2003



Reviewers from the United States
Mohammed Abbas
Schoolcraft College
Michael J. Angilletta, Jr.
Indiana State University
Barbie W. Baker
Florida Community
Joan I. Barber
Delaware Technical and
Community College
Mary Lou Bareither
University of Illinois at Chicago
Clifford L. Barnes
Regis University
Jeanne K. Barnett
University of Southern Indiana
Theresa S. Bidle
Hagerstown Community College
Wendy D. Bircher
San Juan College
Franklyn F. Bolander, Jr.
University of South Carolina
Joan M. Bowden
Alfred University
Julie Harrill Bowers
East Tennessee State University
Sheri L. Boyce
Messiah College
Sara Brenizer
Shelton State Community
Melvin K. Brown
Erie Community College–City
Michael Bumbulis
Baldwin–Wallace College
Ray D. Burkett
Southwest Tennessee
Community College
Jeanne A. Calvert
University of St. Francis
John R. Capeheart
University of
Barbara J. Cohen
Delaware County Community
Stephen J. Connor
University of South Florida
W. Wade Cooper
Shelton State Community
Redding I. Corbett, III
Midlands Technical College
Marya Czech
Lourdes College
Rosemary Davenport
Gulf Coast Community College
Patti Davis
East Central Community College

Mary E. Dawson
Kingsborough Community
Larry DeLay
Waubonsee Community College
Nicholas G. Despo
Thiel College
Danielle Desroches
William Paterson University of
New Jersey
Waneene C. Dorsey
Grambling State University
E. Christis Farrell
Trevecca Nazarene University
Dinah T. Farrington
Russell Sage College
Lorraine Findlay
Nassau Community College
Pamela B. Fouché
Walters State Community College
Frederick R. Frank, Jr.
Volunteer State Community
Christina A. Gan
Rogue Community College
Chaya Gopalan
St. Louis Community College
John S. Green
Texas A&M University
Michael T. Griffin
Angelo State University
Dorothy L. Haggerty
Delgado Community College
Jerry Heckler
John Carroll University
Margery K. Herrington
Adams State College
Michael T. Hoefer
Life University
James Horwitz
Palm Beach Community College
Allen N. Hunt
Elizabethtown Community
Sarah Caruthers Jackson
Florida Community
Kenneth Kaloustian
Quinnipiac University
D. T. Kidwell
Southeast Community College
Kris A. Kilibarda
Iowa Western Community College
Shelley A. Kirkpatrick
Saint Francis University
Thomas E. Kober
Cincinnati State Technical and
Community College
Marian G. Langer
Saint Francis University

Waiston C. Lee
Wayne Community College
Adam Leff
Kent State University–Trumbull
Steven D. Leidich
Cuyahaga Community College
Claire Leonard
William Paterson University
Alex Lowrey
Gainesville College
D. J. Lowrie, Jr.
University of Cincinnati
Jennifer Lundmark
California State
Christopher L. McNair
Hardin–Simmons University
Glenn Merrick
Lake Superior College
Lee A. Meserve
Bowling Green State University
Mindy Millard-Stafford
Georgia Tech
Melissa A. Mills
Anoka–Ramsey Community
Robert Moldenhauer
Saint Clair County Community
David P. Sogn Mork
St. Cloud State University
Devonna Sue Morra
Saint Francis University
Linda R. Nichols
Santa Fe Community College
Murad Odeh
South Texas Community College
Randall Oelerich
Lake Superior College
Nathan O. Okia
Auburn University Montgomery
Valerie Dean O’Loughlin
Indiana University–
Donald M. O’Malley
Northeastern University
Margaret (Betsy) Ott
Tyler Junior College
David Pearson
Ball State University
Julie C. Pilcher
University of Southern Indiana
Don V. Plantz, Jr.
Mohave Community College
Nikki Privacky
Palm Beach Community College
Gregory K. Reeder
Broward Community College
Tricia A. Reichert
Colby Community College


Jackie Reynolds
Richland College
S. Michele Robichaux
Nicholls State University
Angel M. Rodriguez
Broward Community College
Mattie Roig
Broward Community College
Tim V. Roye
San Jacinto College South
Susan E. Safford
Lincoln University
Douglas P. Schelhaas
University of Mary
Waweise Schmidt
Palm Beach Community College
William A. Schutt, Jr.
Southampton College of Long
Island University
Larry J. Scott
Central Virginia Community
Josefina Z. Sevilla-Gardinier
Milwaukee Area Technical
Kelly Sexton
North Lake College
Mark A. Shoop
Tennessee Wesleyan College
Carl J. Shuster
Amarillo College
Dale Smoak
Piedmont Technical College
Keith Snyder
Southern Adventist University
Tracy L. Soltesz
Pikeville College
Michael W. Squires
Columbus State Community
Timothy A. Stabler
Indiana University Northwest
John E. Stencel
Olney Central College
Maura O. Stevenson
Community College of
Allegheny County
William Stewart
Middle Tennessee State
Robert Stinson
South Texas Community College
Kristin J. Stuempfle
Gettysburg College
Mark F. Taylor
Baylor University
Diane Teter
South Texas Community College
Shawn A. Thomas
Delta State University

Saladin: Anatomy &
Physiology: The Unity of
Form and Function, Third


Front Matter

© The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2003



Rafael Torres
San Antonio College
Anthony Udeogalanya
Medgar Evers College
John Uno
Kapiolani Community College
Jyoti R. Wagle
Houston Community
John M. Wakeman
Louisiana Tech University
William G. Walther
Lake Erie College
Robert Waltzer
Belhaven College

DeLoris Wenzel
University of Georgia
Vernon Lee Wiersema
Houston Community
Avery A. Williams
Louisiana State
Bruce Eric Wright
Thomas University
Burk Yarbrough
Central Alabama Community
College–Childersburg Campus
Ferne Zabezensky
Chandler–Gilbert Community

Reviewers from Canada
Margaret Chad
Saskatchewan Institute of
Applied Science and
Technology–Kelsey Campus
Mary T. Guise
Mohawk College of Applied
Arts and Technology
Narinder Kapoor
University Concordia

Linda Melnick
Keewatin Community College
Delia Roberts
Selkirk College
T. M. Scott
Memorial University

Reviewers from Outside
North America
M. Abbott
Nottingham University, School
of Nursing
Irene Allan
University of Dundee School
of Nursing and Midwifery
R. K. Atkinson
University of Southern
Darwish H. Badran
University of Jordan, Medical
A. D. Barber
Plymouth School of Podiatry
Douglas L. Bovell
Glasgow Caledonian University
Richard Brightwell
Edith Cowan University
Mark A. Burton
Charles Sturt University, School
of Biomedical Sciences
Christine Lorraine Carline
Staffordshire University, School
of Health
David Colborn
Independent Consultant, Health
and Social Care
Desmond Cornes
Glasgow Caledonian University

Michele Don
Griffith University, School
of Nursing
Jan S. Gill
Queen Margaret University
Helen Godfrey
University of the West of England
D. F. Peach
Cranfield University
David M. Quincey
Bournemouth University
David Robertson
The Robert Gordon University
School of Health Sciences
George Simpson
Liverpool John Moores
Paul Slater
University of Manchester
Roger Watson
University of Hull, School of
Anne Waugh
Napier University
Chris G. Wigham
Cardiff University

Focus Group Attendees
Shylaja R. Akkaraju
College of Dupage
Les Albin
Austin Community College
Pegge Alciatore
University of Louisiana-Lafayette
Barbie W. Baker
Florida Community CollegeJacksonville
Robert Bauman, Jr.
Amarillo College
Mary Bracken
Trinity Valley Community College
Kenneth Carpenter
Southwest Tennessee
Community College
Matthew J. Craig
Amarillo College
Manuel E. Daniels, Jr.
Tallahassee Community College
Kathryn Gronlund
Edison Community College
Rebecca L. Hennig
Odessa College
Jacqueline A. Homan
South Plains College
Jane Johnson-Murray
Houston Community College
Christopher A. Klotz
St. Petersburg College
Chad M. Masters
University of North Florida
Elizabeth J. Maxim
Austin Community College
Richard McCloskey
Boise State University
W. J. McCracken
Tallahassee Community College
Lynn McCutchen
Kilgore College

Anthony P. McGraw
Saint Petersburg College
Robert C. McReynolds
San Jacinto College Central
Stephen H. McReynolds
Tarleton State University
John E. Moore
Parkland College
Margaret (Betsy) Ott
Tyler Junior College
Julie C. Pilcher
University of Southern Indiana
Linda Powell
Community College of
Mattie Roig
Broward Community College
Wayne Seifert
Brookhaven College
Susan Shuman
St. Petersburg College
Carl J. Shuster
Amarillo College
William Stewart
Middle Tennesse State University
Sarah Strong
Austin Community College
Jyoti R. Wagle
Houston Community College
Donna White
Collin County Community
Kathy B. White
St. Philips College
Vernon Lee Wiersema
Houston Community
Stephen Williams
Glendale Community College
Jim Young
South Plains College

Consultant Panel
Barbie W. Baker
Florida Community
Sharon Barnewall
Columbus State Community
Franklyn F. Bolander, Jr.
University of South Carolina
Sara Brenizer
Shelton State Community College
Frederick R. Frank, Jr.
Volunteer State Community
Carol Haspel
LaGuardia Community College,
Don Hayes
Southeastern Louisiana University

Jacqueline A. Homan
South Plains College
James Horwitz
Palm Beach Community College
William Magill
Humber College
John E. Moore
Parkland College
Margaret (Betsy) Ott
Tyler Junior College
Mattie Roig
Broward Community College
Eva Lurie Weinreb
Community College of
Vernon Lee Wiersema
Houston Community

Saladin: Anatomy &
Physiology: The Unity of
Form and Function, Third

Front Matter

© The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2003

Art Program

Saladin’s Anatomy and Physiology brings key
concepts to life with its unique style of
biomedical illustration.The digitally rendered
images have a vivid three-dimensional look
that will not only stimulate your students’
interest and enthusiasm, but also give them
the clearest possible understanding of
important concepts.

Flexor digitorum superficialis

Palmaris longus tendon
Flexor carpi radialis tendon

Flexor digitorum profundus

Flexor pollicis longus tendon

Flexor carpi ulnaris tendon

Palmar carpal ligament (cut)
Ulnar artery

Median nerve
Radial artery

Ulnar nerve


Flexor retinaculum
covering carpal tunnel
Superficial palmar
arterial arch

Unparalleled Art Program
Saladin’s illustration program includes digital
line art, numerous cadaver photographs, and
light,TEM, and SEM photomicrographs. Larger
images and brighter colors in the third
edition will help draw your students into the


Ulnar artery

Thenar muscles

Median nerve
Flexor carpi
radialis tendon

Ulnar bursa
Hypothenar muscles

Carpal tunnel

Flexor digitorum
superficialis tendons

Flexor digitorum
profundus tendons


Ulnar nerve
Flexor retinaculum
covering carpal tunnel


Radial artery



Extensor tendons


Gluteus medius
I band
A band
Gluteus maximus
Z disc


Adductor magnus
Iliotibial band

Openings into
transverse tubules

Vastus lateralis


Hamstring group
Biceps femoris
Long head
Short head

Terminal cisternae
Transverse tubule






Spine of vertebra

Deep muscles of back
Dorsal root
Spinal cord
Dorsal root
Spinal nerve
Meningeal branch

Dorsal ramus

Communicating rami

Ventral ramus

I must say I was completely blown away by this text.The
graphics in [a leading text I’ve been using] don’t come
close to the graphics in Saladin (which have an
extraordinary 3-D quality).


Ventral root

–Bill Schutt, Long Island University

Body of vertebra


Saladin: Anatomy &
Physiology: The Unity of
Form and Function, Third


Front Matter

© The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2003

Art Program


Motor nerve fiber
Axon terminal
Schwann cell
Synaptic vesicles
(containing ACh)

Basal lamina
(containing AChE)

Flexor hallucis
longus tendon

Flexor digiti
minimi brevis

Flexor digitorum
longus tendon
Abductor hallucis

Abductor hallucis

Abductor digiti

Flexor digitorum


Quadratus plantae

Plantar fascia (cut)

Region of
with ACh receptors

Synaptic cleft

Flexor digitorum
brevis (cut)


Junctional folds


Nucleus of muscle fiber

Plantar view
Dorsal view

Adductor hallucis

Flexor hallucis brevis

Flexor digiti
minimi brevis


Flexor hallucis
longus tendon (cut)
Abductor hallucis (cut)
Quadratus plantae

Flexor digitorum
longus tendon (cut)






Renal papilla



The art program in Saladin’s text is superb. Students
today are more “picture oriented” and gain much of
their information from the figures rather than from the
text material. The figures in Saladin are clearly and
accurately presented.




Efferent arteriole
Afferent arteriole


W. Walther, Lake Erie College


Renal corpuscle




Arcuate vein
Arcuate artery
Nephron loop

2nd rib



vena cava



Collecting duct


Right lung

Vasa recta

pleura (cut)




of heart



Juxtamedullary nephron

Cortical nephron


Saladin: Anatomy &
Physiology: The Unity of
Form and Function, Third

Front Matter

© The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2003

Art Program

The cadaver photos are excellent! My students
(and friends who have taught or taken anatomy class)
love them.


–Michael Angilletta, Jr., Indiana State University,
Terre Haute

Levator labii
Parotid salivary

Frontal lobe
Cranial nerves
Fibers of olfactory nerve (I)


Olfactory bulb

labii inferioris

Olfactory tract

Optic nerve (II)

Optic chiasma

Oculomotor nerve (III)

anguli oris

Temporal lobe

Trochlear nerve (IV)


Trigeminal nerve (V)
Abducens nerve (VI)
Facial nerve (VII)
Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)


Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)


Vagus nerve (X)
Accessory nerve (XI)

Atlas Quality Cadaver Images
Color photographs of cadavers dissected
specifically for this book allow students to
see the real texture of organs and their
relationships to each other.This anatomical
realism combines with the simplified clarity
of line art to give your students a holistic
view of bodily structure.

Hypoglossal nerve (XII)


Cranial nerves

Frontal lobe

Olfactory bulb
(from olfactory n., I)

Olfactory tract

Optic n. (II)
Optic chiasma
Oculomotor n. (III)

Optic tract
Temporal lobe
Medulla oblongata
Spinal cord

Trochlear n. (IV)
Trigeminal n. (V)
Abducens n. (VI)
Facial n. (VII)
n. (VIII)
n. (IX)
Vagus n. (X)
Accessory n. (XI)

External intercostals

Hypoglossal n. (XII)
Erector spinae:
Spinalis thoracis
Iliocostalis thoracis
Longissimus thoracis


Latissimus dorsi

Iliocostalis lumborum
Thoracolumbar fascia

Students have liked the excellent artwork, the charts
and tables, and the clinical insights.The photographs
of cadaver dissections and the electron microscopy
are excellent.
- Robert Moldenhauer, St. Clair County
Community College

Saladin: Anatomy &
Physiology: The Unity of
Form and Function, Third

Front Matter

© The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2003

Art Program

Physiology Focused Art
Saladin illustrates many difficult physiological
concepts in steps that students find easy to
follow. For students who are "visual learners,"
illustrations like these teach more than a
thousand words.

More salt is continually
added by the PCT.

The higher the osmolarity
of the ECF, the more water
leaves the descending limb
by osmosis.









The more salt that is pumped
out of the ascending limb, the
saltier the ECF is in the
renal medulla.

Amino acids
Folic acid
Vitamin B12



The more water that leaves
the descending limb, the
saltier the fluid is that
remains in the tubule.



Erythropoiesis in
red bone marrow
The saltier the fluid in the
ascending limb, the more
salt the tubule pumps into
the ECF.

Small intestine

circulate for 120 days


Expired erythrocytes
break up in liver and spleen
Cell fragments

One of the major strengths of the Saladin text, one that
promoted me to adopt the text, was the quality and
quantity of the illustrations. In my view, this text is a handsdown winner in this area.




R. Symmons, California State University at Hayward




Lymph drains
into bloodstream

Lymph absorbs
from small intestine

Leaves LDLs containing
mainly cholesterol

Cells requiring
cholesterol absorb LDLs
by receptor-mediated
Triglycerides are removed
and stored in adipocytes

Lipoprotein lipase
removes lipids
from chylomicrons

Lipids are stored in
adipocytes or used
by other cells


Liver produces
empty HDL shells
HDL shells pick
up cholesterol and
from tissues

Liver disposes
of chylomicron

Liver excretes
cholesterol as
bile salts

Hydrolyzed to free
amino acids


Filled HDLs
return to liver


Loss by
injury, etc.

Saladin: Anatomy &
Physiology: The Unity of
Form and Function, Third

Front Matter

© The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2003

Art Program

Zone of cell


All life processes are ultimately cellular processes. Saladin drives this
point home with a variety of histological micrographs in LM, SEM, and
TEM formats, including many colorized electron micrographs.

Zone of cell

Breakdown of

Zone of

Trabecula of
spongy bone

Goblet cell
Zone of bone

bone matrix


Bone marrow

Photomicrographs Correlated with Line Art
Saladin juxtaposes histological photomicrographs
with line art. Much like the combination of cadaver
gross photographs and line art, this gives students
the best of both perspectives: the realism of photos
and the explanatory clarity of line drawings.


Nuclei of

Lymphatic nodule
Germinal center

From Macroscopic to Microscopic
Saladin’s line art guides students from the intuitive level of gross anatomy
to the functional foundations revealed by microscopic anatomy.



Aortic arch

Medullary cords
Medullary sinus

Left pulmonary artery

Right pulmonary
Three lobar
arteries to right lung

Two lobar arteries
to left lung
Pulmonary trunk
Left pulmonary veins

Right pulmonary

Left atrium
Left ventricle

Right atrium
Right ventricle

Medullary sinus
Medullary cord

Pulmonary vein
(to left atrium)


Pulmonary artery
(from right ventricle)

Reticular fibers

Alveolar sacs
and alveoli






Reticular fibers




The artwork in Saladin is one of its major strengths. I applaud
this; it really seems to help hold the interest of a wide variety of
D. Farrington, Russell Sage College

Saladin: Anatomy &
Physiology: The Unity of
Form and Function, Third

Front Matter

Anatomy and Physiology is fundamentally a
textbook of the basic science of the human
body. However, students always want to
know why all the science is relevant to their
career aims. Clinical examples and thought
questions make it so. Students can see how
the science relates to well-known
dysfunctions, and why it is important to
know the basics. Dysfunctions also provide
windows of insight into the basic concepts,
such as the insight that cystic fibrosis gives
on the importance of membrane ion
channels, or that antidepressants give on
the synaptic reuptake of neurotransmitters.

436 Part Two Support and Movement

Chapter 11

There are many tidbits of clinical information
that are in this book, but not in others that I
have seen. I think that’s great! I have learned
a thing or two. I also think that the author has
tried to choose clinical examples that are
commonly dealt with and therefore most
useful to the student.

© The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2003

Clinical Emphasis

L. Steele, Ivy Tech State College

Smooth muscle exhibits a reaction called the stressrelaxation (or receptive relaxation) response. When
stretched, it briefly contracts and resists, but then relaxes.
The significance of this response is apparent in the urinary bladder, whose wall consists of three layers of
smooth muscle. If the stretched bladder contracted and
did not soon relax, it would expel urine almost as soon as
it began to fill, thus failing to store the urine until an
opportune time.
Remember that skeletal muscle cannot contract very
forcefully if it is overstretched. Smooth muscle is not subject to the limitations of this length-tension relationship. It
must be able to contract forcefully even when greatly
stretched, so that hollow organs such as the stomach and
bladder can fill and then expel their contents efficiently.
Skeletal muscle must be within 30% of optimum length in
order to contract strongly when stimulated. Smooth muscle, by contrast, can be anywhere from half to twice its
resting length and still contract powerfully. There are
three reasons for this: (1) there are no Z discs, so thick filaments cannot butt against them and stop the contraction;
(2) since the thick and thin filaments are not arranged in
orderly sarcomeres, stretching of the muscle does not
cause a situation where there is too little overlap for crossbridges to form; and (3) the thick filaments of smooth

muscle have myosin heads along their entire length (there
is no bare zone), so cross-bridges can form anywhere, not
just at the ends. Smooth muscle also exhibits plasticity—
the ability to adjust its tension to the degree of stretch.
Thus, a hollow organ such as the bladder can be greatly
stretched yet not become flabby when it is empty.
The muscular system suffers fewer diseases than any
other organ system, but several of its more common dysfunctions are listed in table 11.6. The effects of aging on
the muscular system are described on pages 1109–1110.

Before You Go On
Answer the following questions to test your understanding of the
preceding section:
25. Explain why intercalated discs are important to cardiac muscle
26. Explain why it is important for cardiac muscle to have a longer
action potential and longer refractory period than skeletal muscle.
27. How do single-unit and multiunit smooth muscle differ in
innervation and contractile behavior?
28. How does smooth muscle differ from skeletal muscle with
respect to its source of calcium and its calcium receptor?
29. Explain why the stress-relaxation response is an important factor
in smooth muscle function.

Table 11.6 Some Disorders of the Muscular System
Delayed onset muscle

Pain, stiffness, and tenderness felt from several hours to a day after strenuous exercise. Associated with microtrauma to
the muscles, with disrupted Z discs, myofibrils, and plasma membranes; and with elevated levels of myoglobin, creatine
kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase in the blood.


Painful muscle spasms triggered by heavy exercise, extreme cold, dehydration, electrolyte loss, low blood glucose, or lack
of blood flow.


Abnormal muscle shortening not caused by nervous stimulation. Can result from failure of the calcium pump to remove
Ca2⫹ from the sarcoplasm or from contraction of scar tissue, as in burn patients.


Diffuse, chronic muscular pain and tenderness, often associated with sleep disturbances and fatigue; often misdiagnosed
as chronic fatigue syndrome. Can be caused by various infectious diseases, physical or emotional trauma, or medications.
Most common in women 30 to 50 years old.

Crush syndrome

A shocklike state following the massive crushing of muscles; associated with high and potentially fatal fever, cardiac
irregularities resulting from K⫹ released from the muscle, and kidney failure resulting from blockage of the renal tubules
with myoglobin released by the traumatized muscle. Myoglobinuria (myoglobin in the urine) is a common sign.

Disuse atrophy

Reduction in the size of muscle fibers as a result of nerve damage or muscular inactivity, for example in limbs in a cast and
in patients confined to a bed or wheelchair. Muscle strength can be lost at a rate of 3% per day of bed rest.


Muscle inflammation and weakness resulting from infection or autoimmune disease.

Disorders described elsewhere
Athletic injuries p. 386

Hernia p. 351

Pulled groin p. 386

Back injuries p. 349

Muscular dystrophy p. 437

Pulled hamstrings p. 386

Baseball finger p. 386

Myasthenia gravis p. 437

Rotator cuff injury p. 386

Carpal tunnel syndrome p. 365

Paralysis p. 414

Tennis elbow p. 386

Charley horse p. 386

Pitcher’s arm p. 386

Tennis leg p. 386

Compartment syndrome p. 386

Pathology Tables
For each organ system, Saladin presents a
table that briefly describes several wellknown dysfunctions and comprehensively
lists the pages where students can find
comments on other disorders of that


Saladin: Anatomy &
Physiology: The Unity of
Form and Function, Third

Front Matter

© The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2003

Clinical Emphasis

I like Saladin’s presentation because I feel an
understanding of how medicine and science
have changed throughout history is part of
becoming a "well educated," not just a "well
trained" student.

Chapter 10 The Muscular System 351

Superior nuchal line

- R. Pope, Miami-Dade Community College
Semispinalis capitis

Longissimus capitis
Splenius capitis

Semispinalis cervicis

Serratus posterior superior

Splenius cervicis
Erector spinae

Semispinalis thoracis

Serratus posterior inferior

Quadratus lumborum

External abdominal
oblique (cut)

Figure 10.18 Muscles Acting on the Vertebral Column. Those on the right are deeper than those on the left.

erection. In males, the bulbospongiosus (bulbocavernosus)
forms a sheath around the base (bulb) of the penis; it expels
semen during ejaculation. In females, it encloses the vagina
like a pair of parentheses and tightens on the penis during
intercourse. Voluntary contractions of this muscle in both
sexes also help void the last few milliliters of urine. The
superficial transverse perineus extends from the ischial
tuberosities to a strong central tendon of the perineum.
In the middle compartment, the urogenital triangle is
spanned by a thin triangular sheet called the urogenital
diaphragm. This is composed of a fibrous membrane and
two muscles—the deep transverse perineus and the external urethral sphincter (fig. 10.20c, d). The anal triangle
contains the external anal sphincter. The deepest compartment, called the pelvic diaphragm, is similar in both
sexes. It consists of two muscle pairs shown in figure
10.20e—the levator ani and coccygeus.

Insight 10.3

Clinical Application

A hernia is any condition in which the viscera protrude through a weak
point in the muscular wall of the abdominopelvic cavity. The most
common type to require treatment is an inguinal hernia. In the male
fetus, each testis descends from the pelvic cavity into the scrotum by
way of a passage called the inguinal canal through the muscles of the
groin. This canal remains a weak point in the pelvic floor, especially in
infants and children. When pressure rises in the abdominal cavity, it
can force part of the intestine or bladder into this canal or even into
the scrotum. This also sometimes occurs in men who hold their breath
while lifting heavy weights. When the diaphragm and abdominal muscles contract, pressure in the abdominal cavity can soar to 1,500
pounds per square inch—more than 100 times the normal pressure and
quite sufficient to produce an inguinal hernia, or “rupture.” Inguinal
hernias rarely occur in women.

Chapter 10

Internal abdominal

Clinical Applications
Each chapter has three to five Insight
boxes, many of which are clinical in
nature. These essays illuminate the
clinical relevance of a concept and give
insight on disease as it relates to normal
structure and function.

The accuracy of information in this text is as
good as it gets. Saladin seems to be right on
top of every new bit of information that is
revealed. What I really like about the Saladin
text is that it lets students know when we don’t
know why something is the way it is. Other texts
will try to make the facts fit when they actually
– W. Schmidt, Palm Beach Community College

Saladin: Anatomy &
Physiology: The Unity of
Form and Function, Third

Front Matter

© The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2003

Clinical Emphasis

Connective Issues
The human organ systems do not exist in isolation
from each other. Diseases of the circulatory system
can lead to failure of the urinary system and aging
of the skin can lead to weakening of the skeleton.
For each organ system, a page called Connective
Issues shows how it affects other systems of the
body and is affected by them.

Interactions Between the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and Other Organ Systems
indicates ways in which this system affects other systems
indicates ways in which other systems affect this one

All Systems
The respiratory system serves all other systems by supplying O2,
removing CO2, and maintaining acid-base balance

Integumentary System
Nasal guard hairs reduce inhalation of dust and other foreign

Skeletal System
Thoracic cage protects lungs; movement of ribs produces pressure
changes that ventilate lungs

Muscular System
Skeletal muscles ventilate lungs, control position of larynx during
swallowing, control vocal cords during speech; exercise strongly
stimulates respiration because of the CO2 generated by active
Chapter 22

Nervous System
Produces the respiratory rhythm, monitors blood gases and pH,
monitors stretching of lungs; phrenic, intercostal, and other nerves
control respiratory muscles

Endocrine System
Lungs produce angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), which
converts angiotensin I to the hormone angiotensin II

858 Part Four Regulation and Maintenance

Epinephrine and norepinephrine dilate bronchioles and stimulate

Circulatory System
Regulates blood pH; thoracic pump aids in venous return;
lungs produce blood platelets; production of angiotensin II by
lungs is important in control of blood volume and pressure;
obstruction of pulmonary circulation leads to right-sided heart
Blood transports O2 and CO2; mitral stenosis or left-sided heart
failure can cause pulmonary edema; emboli from peripheral sites
often lodge in lungs

This section describes the neural mechanisms that
regulate pulmonary ventilation. Neurons in the medulla
oblongata and pons provide automatic control of unconscious breathing, whereas neurons in the motor cortex of
the cerebrum provide voluntary control.

Urinary System
Valsalva maneuver aids in emptying bladder
Disposes of wastes from respiratory organs; collaborates with
lungs in controlling blood pH

Control Centers in the Brainstem

Digestive System
Valsalva maneuver aids in defecation
Provides nutrients for growth and maintenance of respiratory

Lymphatic/Immune Systems
Reproductive System

Thoracic pump promotes lymph flow
Lymphatic drainage from lungs is important in keeping alveoli dry;
immune cells protect lungs from infection

Valsalva maneuver aids in childbirth
Sexual arousal stimulates respiration


- D. Plantz, Mohave Community College

Chapter 22

The clinical application approach seems much more
consistently and richly in evidence in Saladin.

The medulla oblongata contains inspiratory (I) neurons,
which fire during inspiration, and expiratory (E) neurons,
which fire during forced expiration (but not during eupnea). Fibers from these neurons travel down the spinal
cord and synapse with lower motor neurons in the cervical to thoracic regions. From here, nerve fibers travel in
the phrenic nerves to the diaphragm and intercostal
nerves to the intercostal muscles. No pacemaker neurons
have been found that are analogous to the autorhythmic
cells of the heart, and the exact mechanism for setting the
rhythm of respiration remains unknown despite intensive
The medulla has two respiratory nuclei (fig. 22.15).
One of them, called the inspiratory center, or dorsal respiratory group (DRG), is composed primarily of I neurons, which stimulate the muscles of inspiration. The more
frequently they fire, the more motor units are recruited
and the more deeply you inhale. If they fire longer than
usual, each breath is prolonged and the respiratory rate is
slower. When they stop firing, elastic recoil of the lungs
and thoracic cage produces passive expiration.
The other nucleus is the expiratory center, or ventral
respiratory group (VRG). It has I neurons in its midregion
and E neurons at its rostral and caudal ends. It is not
involved in eupnea, but its E neurons inhibit the inspiratory center when deeper expiration is needed. Conversely,
the inspiratory center inhibits the expiratory center when
an unusually deep inspiration is needed.
The pons regulates ventilation by means of a pneumotaxic center in the upper pons and an apneustic (apNEW-stic) center in the lower pons. The role of the
apneustic center is still unclear, but it seems to prolong
inspiration. The pneumotaxic (NEW-mo-TAX-ic) center
sends a continual stream of inhibitory impulses to the
inspiratory center of the medulla. When impulse frequency rises, inspiration lasts as little as 0.5 second and
the breathing becomes faster and shallower. Conversely,
when impulse frequency declines, breathing is slower and
deeper, with inspiration lasting as long as 5 seconds.

Think About It
Do you think the fibers from the pneumotaxic center
produce EPSPs or IPSPs at their synapses in the
inspiratory center? Explain.




Pneumotaxic center

Apneustic center


Expiratory center

Inspiratory center


Internal intercostal
External intercostal

Figure 22.15 Respiratory Control Centers. Functions of the
apneustic center are hypothetical and its connections are therefore
indicated by broken lines. As indicated by the plus and minus signs, the
apneustic center stimulates the inspiratory center, while the pneumotaxic
center inhibits it. The inspiratory and expiratory centers inhibit each

quency rises, inspiration lasts as little as 0.5 second and
the breathing becomes faster and shallower. Conversely,
when impulse frequency declines, breathing is slower and
deeper, with inspiration lasting as long as 5 seconds.

Think About It
Do you think the fibers from the pneumotaxic center
produce EPSPs or IPSPs at their synapses in the
inspiratory center? Explain.

Think About It
Success in health professions requires far more than
memorization. More important is your insight and ability
to apply what you remember in new cases and
problems. Think About It questions, which can be found
strategically distributed throughout each chapter,
encourage stopping and thinking more deeply about
the meaning or broader significance.

Saladin: Anatomy &
Physiology: The Unity of
Form and Function, Third

Front Matter

© The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2003

Learning System



Saladin structures each chapter around a consistent and
unique framework of pedagogic devices. No matter what
the subject matter of a chapter, this enables students to
develop a consistent learning strategy, making Anatomy
and Physiology a superior learning tool.

Each chapter has from three to six special topic Insight
essays on the history behind the science, the evolution
behind human form and function, and especially the
clinical implications of the basic science. Insight sidebars
lend the subject deeper meaning, intriguing perspectives,
and career relevance to the student.
Brushing Up
A Brushing Up list at the beginning of the chapter ties
chapters together and reminds students that all organ
systems are conceptually related to each other.They
discourage the habit of forgetting about a chapter after
the exam is over. Brushing Up lists are also useful to
instructors who present the subject in a different order from
the textbook.

The Brain and
Cranial Nerves
Glioblastoma (red), a fast-growing, highly invasive brain tumor (MRI)

Overview of the Brain 516
• Directional Terms in Neuroanatomy 516
• Major Landmarks of the Brain 516
• Gray and White Matter 516
• Embryonic Development 517
Meninges, Ventricles, Cerebrospinal Fluid,
and Blood Supply 519
• Meninges 519
• Ventricles and Cerebrospinal Fluid 521
• Blood Supply and the Brain Barrier
System 524
The Hindbrain and Midbrain 524
• The Medulla Oblongata 524
• The Pons and Cerebellum 526
• The Midbrain 526
• The Reticular Formation 528


The Forebrain 529
• The Diencephalon 530
• The Cerebrum 531

14.1 Clinical Application:
Meningitis 521
14.2 Medical History: The Accidental
Lobotomy of Phineas Gage 538
14.3 Clinical Application: Some Cranial
Nerve Disorders 556
14.4 Clinical Application: Images of the
Mind 557

Higher Brain Functions 536
• Brain Waves and Sleep 536
• Cognition 538
• Memory 539
• Emotion 539
• Sensation 540
• Motor Control 542
• Language 543
• Cerebral Lateralization 543
The Cranial Nerves 546
• The Cranial Nerves—An Aid to Memory 547
Chapter Review 558

Brushing Up
To understand this chapter, it is important that you understand or
brush up on the following concepts:
• Anatomy of the cranium (pp. 248–257)
• Glial cells and their functions (pp. 450–451)
• Tracts of the spinal cord (pp. 486–489)
• Structure of nerves and ganglia (pp. 490–492)

Chapter 14 The Brain and Cranial Nerves 529

Radiations to
cerebral cortex

I really like having the objectives listed prior to each section
instead of in the beginning of each chapter. In this manner, they
are more appropriate for the students and it helps them focus on
the issues of importance of that section. The "Think About It"
questions are especially nice as it makes the students stop and
apply what they have read.

Auditory input
Visual input


Ascending general
sensory fibers

- W. Bircher, San Juan College

Figure 14.11 The Reticular Formation. The formation consists of over 100 nuclei scattered through the brainstem region indicated in red.
Arrows represent the breadth of its projections to and from the cerebral cortex and other CNS regions.

• Cardiovascular control. The reticular formation
includes the cardiac center and vasomotor center of
the medulla oblongata.

Before You Go On
Answer the following questions to test your understanding of the
preceding section:
8. Name the visceral functions controlled by nuclei of the medulla.
9. Describe the general functions of the cerebellum.
10. What are some functions of the midbrain nuclei?
11. Describe the reticular formation and list several of its

• Pain modulation. The reticular formation is the origin
of the descending analgesic pathways mentioned in
the earlier description of the reticulospinal tracts.
• Sleep and consciousness. The reticular formation has
projections to the cerebral cortex and thalamus that
allow it some control over what sensory signals reach
the cerebrum and come to our conscious attention. It
plays a central role in states of consciousness such as
alertness and sleep. Injury to the reticular formation
can result in irreversible coma. General anesthetics
work by blocking signal transmission through the
reticular formation.
The reticular formation also is involved in habituation—a process in which the brain learns to ignore repetitive, inconsequential stimuli while remaining sensitive to
others. In a noisy city, for example, a person can sleep
through traffic sounds but wake promptly to the sound of
an alarm clock or a crying baby. Reticular formation nuclei
that modulate activity of the cerebral cortex are called the
reticular activating system or extrathalamic cortical modulatory system.

The Forebrain
When you have completed this section, you should be able to
• name the three major components of the diencephalon and
describe their locations and functions;
• identify the five lobes of the cerebrum;
• describe the three types of tracts in the cerebral white
• describe the distinctive cell types and histological
arrangement of the cerebral cortex; and
• describe the location and functions of the basal nuclei and
limbic system.
The forebrain consists of the diencephalon and telencephalon. The diencephalon encloses the third ventricle
and is the most rostral part of the brainstem. The telencephalon develops chiefly into the cerebrum.

Chapter 14

enable the eyes to track and fixate on objects, and
central pattern generators—neuronal pools that
produce rhythmic signals to the muscles of
breathing and swallowing.

Before You Go On
Saladin divides each chapter into short "digestible"
segments of about three to five pages each. Each segment
ends with a few content review questions, so students can
pause to evaluate their understanding of the previous few
pages before going on.
Each new section of a chapter begins with a list of learning
objectives. Students and instructors find this more useful
than a single list of objectives at the beginning of a
chapter, where few students ever refer back to them as
they progress with their reading.

Saladin: Anatomy &
Physiology: The Unity of
Form and Function, Third

Front Matter

Chapter Review
Briefly restates the key points of the

© The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2003

Learning System

558 Part Three Integration and Control

Chapter Review
Testing Your Recall
Multiple choice and short answer
questions allow students to check
their knowledge.

Review of Key Concepts

- S. Kirkpatrick, Saint Francis University

Testing Your Recall

Chapter 11

The "Testing Your Recall" questions
and the "Testing Your Comprehension"
questions provide and excellent
opportunity for students to review the
material in the chapter as a whole,
testing not only recall of information,
but also the student’s ability to apply
the information they recall.

Chapter 14

True or False
Saladin’s True or False questions are
more than they appear.They also
require the student to explain why
the false statements are untrue, thus
challenging the student to think
more deeply into the material and to
appreciate and express subtle
points. Answers can be found in the

matter called the arbor vitae, deep
fourth ventricle, out through
Overview of the Brain (p. 516)
nuclei of gray matter embedded in
foramina in the fourth, into the
1. The adult brain weighs 1,450 to
the white matter, and unusually large
subarachnoid space around the brain
1,600 g. It is divided into the
neurons called Purkinje cells.
and spinal cord, and finally returns to
cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem.
5. The cerebellum is concerned with
the blood by way of arachnoid villi.
2. The cerebrum and cerebellum exhibit
motor coordination and judging the
5. CSF provides buoyancy, physical
folds called gyri separated by grooves
passage of time, and plays lessprotection, and chemical stability for
called sulci. The groove between the
understood roles in awareness,
the CNS.
cerebral hemispheres is the
judgment, memory, and emotion.
6. The brain has a high demand for
longitudinal fissure.
6. The midbrain is rostral to the pons. It
glucose and oxygen and thus receives
3. The cerebrum and cerebellum have
conducts signals up and down the
a copious blood supply.
gray matter in their surface cortex
brainstem and between the brainstem
7. The blood-brain barrier and bloodand deeper nuclei, and white matter
and cerebellum, and contains nuclei
CSF barrier tightly regulate what
deep to the cortex.
involved in motor control, pain,
substances can escape the blood and
4. Embryonic development of the brain
visual attention, and auditory
reach the nervous tissue.
progresses through neural plate and
reflexes. It gives rise to cranial nerves
neural tube stages in the first 440
Part Two Support and Movement
III and IV.
weeks. The anterior neural tube then
The Hindbrain and Midbrain (p. 524)
7. The reticular formation is an
begins to bulge and differentiate into
1. The medulla oblongata is the most
elongated cluster of nuclei extending
forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain.
caudal part of the brain, just inside
throughout the brainstem, including
By the fifth week, the forebrain and
the foramen magnum. It conducts
some of the nuclei already
hindbrain show further subdivision
signals up and down the brainstem
1. To make a muscle
mentioned. It is involved in the c. high fatigue resistance.
into two secondary vesicles each.
and between
brainstem and d. thin myofilaments
d. a red color.
strongly, the cerebellum,
nervous system
control of skeletal muscles, the visual
and can
contains nuclei e. dense bodies
e. a high capacity to synthesize ATP
motor units.
in vasomotion,
Meninges, Ventricles, Cerebrospinal activate moreinvolved
6. Smooth muscle
process is called
and muscle
pain, sleep, aerobically.
coughing, sneezing, salivation, whereas skeletal
Fluid, and Blood Supply (p. 519)
do not.
swallowing, gagging, vomiting, a. sarcoplasmic
1. Like the spinal cord, the brain is a. recruitment.
reticulum and sensory 11. The minimum stimulus intensity that
b. summation.
gastrointestinal secretion, sweating,
surrounded by a dura mater,
will make a muscle contract is called
b. tropomyosin
c. incomplete
muscles of tongue and head c. calmodulin
arachnoid mater, and pia mater. The
______ .
d. twitch. movement. Cranial nerves IX through
dura mater is divided into two layers,
d. Z discsThe Forebrain (p. 529)
The forebrain consists of the 12. A state of prolonged maximum
periosteal and meningeal, which e.
in treppe. XII arise from the medulla.
e. myosin1.
contraction is called ______ .
diencephalon and cerebrum.
pons is immediately
rostral to
some places are separated by a2.
bloodThe ______2.isThe
a depression
in the
ACh receptors
found mainlyisincomposed of the
2. The
the medulla.
conducts signals
filled dural sinus. In some places,sarcolemma
13. Parts of the sarcoplasmic reticulum
receives aItmotor
a. synaptic vesicles.
thalamus, hypothalamus, and
subdural space also separates thenerve ending.and down the brainstem and between
called ______ lie on each side of a T
b. terminal cisternae.
dura from the arachnoid.
a. T tubule the brainstem and cerebellum, and
3. The thalamus receives sensory input
contains nuclei involved in sleep,c. thick filaments.
2. The brain has four internal,
b. terminal cisterna
14. Thick myofilaments consist mainly of
d. thin filaments.
from the brainstem and first two
interconnected cavities: two lateral
c. sarcomerehearing, equilibrium, taste, eye
folds. nerves, integrates sensorythe protein ______ .
facial expression ande. junctionalcranial
ventricles in the cerebral
d. motor endmovements,
data, and
hemispheres, a third ventricle
15. The neurotransmitter that stimulates
8. Single-unit smooth
can information
e. synapse sensation, respiration, swallowing,
to other
bladder control, and posture. Cranial
between the hemispheres, and a
skeletal muscle is ______ .
stimulate each
theyof the cerebrum.
3. Before
can contract,
It is also involved in emotion,
V arises
from the pons, andhave
fourth ventricle between the pons
and a muscle
16. Muscle contains an oxygen-binding
ATP must bind
to VI through VIII arise between
memory, arousal, and eye
a. a latch-bridge.
pigment called ______ .
a. a Z disc. the pons and medulla.
3. The ventricles and canals of the CNS
b. diffuse junctions.
b. the myosin
The ______ of skeletal muscle play the
hypothalamus is inferior 17.
to the
3. The
cerebellum is the
are lined with ependymal cells, and
gap junctions.
Part part
Twoc.of Support
thalamus and forms the walls andsame role as dense bodies in smooth
the hindbrain. It is composed of two
each ventricle contains a choroid c. tropomyosin.
d. tight junctions.
d. troponin. hemispheres joined by a vermis, and
floor of the third ventricle. It is a muscle.
plexus of blood capillaries.
e. calcium pumps.
e. actin.
major homeostatic control center. It
has three pairs of cerebellar
4. These spaces are filled with
18. In autonomic nerve fibers that
synthesizes some pituitary hormones
attach it to the
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which
4. Before
a muscle
fiber can
stimulate single-unit smooth muscle,
of pituitary
pons, and midbrain and______ to enable
produced by the ependyma and Ca2⫹ must bind
the neurotransmitter is contained in
7. The femur is held tightly in the
is no meniscus in the elbow
of thesecretion,
followingand it has4.
carry signals between
the brainstem
choroid plexuses and in the
a. calsequestrin.
swellings called ______ .
the stress-relaxation
acetabulum mainly by the round
and briefly
with heart response
rate, blood pressure,
cerebellum. statements area.false,
subarachnoid space around the brain.
b. the myosin
explain why.
A state of continual partial muscle ligament.
gastrointestinal secretion
and 19.behind
4. Histologically, the cerebellum
The CSF of the ventricles flows from
c. tropomyosin.
5. Reaching
you to take
contraction is called ______ .
pupillary diameter,
of people
white get rheumatoid
the lateral to the third and then d. troponin. exhibits a fernlike pattern
8. The knuckles are diarthroses.
something out of your hip pocket
1. More
d. oxygen debt
e. actin.
than osteoarthritis.
______ is an endofproduct
of anaerobic
e. treppe
9. Synovial fluid is secreted by the
shoulder. fermentation that causes muscle
5. Skeletal muscle fibers have ______2., A doctor who treats arthritis is called
10. Slow oxidative fibers have all of the
whereas smooth muscle cells do not.
6. The anterior cruciate ligament
a kinesiologist.
following except
10. Unlike most ligaments, the
a. T tubules
normally prevents hyperextension of
a. anare
of myoglobin.
periodontal ligaments do not attach
3. Synovial joints
also known
b. ACh receptors
the knee.
b. an abundance of glycogen.
one bone to another.
c. thick myofilaments

True or False

Answers in Appendix B Answers in Appendix B

Testing Your Comprehension
Chapter 9

Testing Your Comprehension
Questions that go beyond memorization to
require a deeper level of analysis and clinical
application. Scenarios from Morbidity and
Mortality Weekly Reports and other sources
prompt students to apply the chapter’s basic
science to real-life case histories.

1. All second-class levers produce a
mechanical advantage greater than
1.0 and all third-class levers produce
a mechanical advantage less than 1.0.
Explain why.
2. Suppose a lever measures 17 cm from
effort to fulcrum and 11 cm from
resistance to fulcrum. (a) Calculate its
mechanical advantage. (b) Would this
lever produce more force, or less, than
the force exerted on it? (c) Which of
the three classes of levers could not
have these measurements? Explain.

3. In order of occurrence, list the joint
actions (flexion, pronation, etc.) and
the joints where they would occur as
you (a) sit down at a table, (b) reach
out and pick up an apple, (c) take a
bite, and (d) chew it. Assume that
you start in anatomical position.
4. Suppose you were dissecting a cat or
fetal pig with the task of finding
examples of each type of synovial
joint. Which type of human synovial

joint would not be found in either of
those animals? For lack of that joint,
what human joint actions would
those animals be unable to perform?
5. List the six types of synovial joints
and for each one, if possible,
identify a joint in the upper limb
and a joint in the lower limb that
falls into each category. Which of
these six joints have no examples in
the lower limb?

Answers at the Online Learning Center

Answers to Figure Legend Questions

Answers to Figure Legend Questions
Thought questions have been added to around
five figures per chapter. Answers to these
questions are found in this section.

9.5 The pubic symphysis consists of the
cartilaginous interpubic disc and
the adjacent parts of the two pubic
9.6 Interphalangeal joints are not
subjected to a great deal of

9.15 MA ⫽ 1.0. Shifting the fulcrum to
the left would increase the MA of
this lever, while the lever would
remain first-class.
9.18 The stylomandibular ligament is
relatively remote from the point

where the mandible and temporal
bone meet.
9.24 It is the vertical band of tissue
immediately to the right of the
medial meniscus.

The Online Learning Center provides a wealth of information fully organized and integrated by chapter. You will find practice quizzes,
interactive activities, labeling exercises, flashcards, and much more that will complement your learning and understanding of anatomy
and physiology.

Website Reminder
Located at the end of the Chapter Review is a
reminder that additional study questions and
other learning activities for anatomy and
physiology appear on the Online Learning

Saladin: Anatomy &
Physiology: The Unity of
Form and Function, Third

1. Major Themes of
Anatomy and Physiology

© The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2003




Major Themes of
Anatomy and Physiology
A new life begins—a human embryo on the point of a pin

The Scope of Anatomy and Physiology 2
• Anatomy—The Study of Form 2
• Physiology—The Study of Function 3

Human Structure 12
• The Hierarchy of Complexity 12
• Anatomical Variation 14

The Origins of Biomedical Science 3
• The Beginnings of Medicine 3
• The Birth of Modern Medicine 3
• Living in a Revolution 6

Human Function 14
• Characteristics of Life 14
• Physiological Variation 16
• Homeostasis and Negative Feedback 17
• Positive Feedback and Rapid Change 18

Scientific Method 7
• The Inductive Method 7
• The Hypothetico-Deductive Method 7
• Experimental Design 7
• Peer Review 8
• Facts, Laws, and Theories 8
Human Origins and Adaptations 9
• Evolution, Selection, and Adaptation 9
• Primate Adaptations 10
• Walking Upright 11

The Language of Medicine 19
• The History of Anatomical Terminology 19
• Analyzing Medical Terms 20
• Singular and Plural Forms 21
• The Importance of Precision 21



Evolutionary Medicine: Vestiges
of Human Evolution 10
Clinical Application: Situs
Inversus and Other Unusual
Anatomy 14
Medical History: Men in the
Oven 18
Medical History: Obscure Word
Origins 20
Clinical Application: Medical
Imaging 22

Review of Major Themes 21
Chapter Review 25


Saladin: Anatomy &
Physiology: The Unity of
Form and Function, Third


1. Major Themes of
Anatomy and Physiology

© The McGraw−Hill
Companies, 2003


Part One Organization of the Body


Chapter 1

o branch of science hits as close to home as the science of our
own bodies. We’re grateful for the dependability of our hearts;
we’re awed by the capabilities of muscles and joints displayed by
Olympic athletes; and we ponder with philosophers the ancient
mysteries of mind and emotion. We want to know how our body
works, and when it malfunctions, we want to know what is happening and what we can do about it. Even the most ancient writings of civilization include medical documents that attest to
humanity’s timeless drive to know itself. You are embarking on a
subject that is as old as civilization, yet one that grows by thousands of scientific publications every week.
This book is an introduction to human structure and function, the biology of the human body. It is meant primarily to give
you a foundation for advanced study in health care, exercise physiology, pathology, and other fields related to health and fitness.
Beyond that purpose, however, it can also provide you with a deeply
satisfying sense of self-understanding.
As rewarding and engrossing as this subject is, the human
body is highly complex and a knowledge of it requires us to comprehend a great deal of detail. The details will be more manageable
if we relate them to a few broad, unifying concepts. The aim of this
chapter, therefore, is to introduce such concepts and put the rest of
the book into perspective. We consider the historical development
of anatomy and physiology, the thought processes that led to the
knowledge in this book, the meaning of human life, and a central
concept of physiology called homeostasis.
The Preface to Students describes some ways in which this
book and its companion materials can be used to learn this subject
most effectively. If you haven’t already read it, I urge you to do so
before continuing.

The Scope of Anatomy
and Physiology
Anatomy is the study of structure, and physiology is the
study of function. These approaches are complementary
and never entirely separable. When we study a structure,
we want to know, What does it do? Physiology lends
meaning to anatomy and, conversely, anatomy is what
makes physiology possible. This unity of form and function is an important point to bear in mind as you study the
body. Many examples of it will be apparent throughout the
book—some of them pointed out for you, and others you
will notice for yourself.

Anatomy—The Study of Form
The simplest way to study human anatomy is the observation of surface structure, for example in performing a
physical examination or making a clinical diagnosis from
surface appearance. But a deeper understanding of the
body depends on dissection—the careful cutting and separation of tissues to reveal their relationships. Both

Figure 1.1 Early Medical Students in the Gross Anatomy
Laboratory with Three Cadavers. Students of the health sciences
have long begun their professional training by dissecting cadavers.

anatomy1 and dissection2 literally mean “cutting apart”;
dissecting used to be called “anatomizing.” The dissection
of a dead human body, or cadaver,3 is an essential part of
the training of many health science students (fig. 1.1).
Many insights into human structure are obtained from
comparative anatomy—the study of more than one
species in order to learn generalizations and evolutionary
trends. Students of anatomy often begin by dissecting
other animals with which we share a common ancestry
and many structural similarities.
Dissection, of course, is not the method of choice
when studying a living person! Physical examinations
involve not only looking at the body for signs of normalcy or disease but also touching and listening to it.
Palpation4 is feeling structure with the fingertips, such
as palpating a swollen lymph node or taking a pulse.
Auscultation5 (AWS-cul-TAY-shun) is listening to the
natural sounds made by the body, such as heart and lung
sounds. In percussion, the examiner taps on the body
and listens to the sound for signs of abnormalities such
as pockets of fluid or air.
Structure that can be seen with the naked eye,
whether by surface observation or dissection, is called
gross anatomy. Ultimately, though, the functions of the
body result from its individual cells. To see those, we usually take tissue specimens, thinly slice and stain them, and
observe them under the micro