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This is amazing book for biology moreover, zlibrary is very helpfull because you get expensive book without pay any money like this book is prescribed book for biology in University of South Africa
25 May 2019 (17:42)
Excellent book for biology understanding
16 April 2020 (16:32)
Book is not downloading. Why?
01 September 2020 (14:10)
Very good book. Really helpful. @Zoologist, you can use TOR browser to read the book. If you are outside of Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka then, downloading it is not legal for you.
12 October 2020 (08:42)
with table of contents. Great copy. all pictures clear.
24 November 2020 (06:22)
please make it available for download
20 December 2020 (09:14)
Hello. I have the premium subscription but I cannot open the pdf of Campbell Biology textbook.
20 January 2021 (22:29)
Also not able to download this
23 January 2021 (03:51)
I think you need a while for the file to get fully downloaded
30 January 2021 (16:53)
saved my biology grade :))))
01 April 2021 (04:24)
Thomas Ongani Chunga
You are the best ????
01 April 2021 (23:26)
Nice book you get for free...
It's great thing to say.....
It's cost is too much when you buy it in real book around ₹15, 000 - ₹ 10,000 in India and in other countries around £ 57.99
So, in my opinion it's good to go through this PDF files...
It help me to get A++ grade in my exams of undergraduate...
I will suggest you you will be happy reading the book by pdf....
I buy the book after I read the pdf files
It's great thing to say.....
It's cost is too much when you buy it in real book around ₹15, 000 - ₹ 10,000 in India and in other countries around £ 57.99
So, in my opinion it's good to go through this PDF files...
It help me to get A++ grade in my exams of undergraduate...
I will suggest you you will be happy reading the book by pdf....
I buy the book after I read the pdf files
29 April 2021 (10:50)
Best book is this for biology
02 June 2021 (09:49)
Brief Contents 1 Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry 2 Unit 1 The Chemistry of Life 27 2 3 4 5 The Chemical Context of Life 28 Water and Life 44 Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life 56 The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules 66 A Tour of the Cell 93 Membrane Structure and Function 126 An Introduction to Metabolism 143 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation 164 Photosynthesis 187 Cell Communication 212 The Cell Cycle 234 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles 254 Mendel and the Gene Idea 269 The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance 294 The Molecular Basis of Inheritance 314 Gene Expression: From Gene to Protein 335 Regulation of Gene Expression 363 Viruses 396 DNA Tools and Biotechnology 413 Genomes and Their Evolution 440 Unit 4 Mechanisms of Evolution 465 22 Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life 466 23 The Evolution of Populations 484 24 The Origin of Species 504 25 The History of Life on Earth 523 Unit 5 The Evolutionary History of Biological Diversity 550 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life 27 Bacteria and Archaea 571 Plants 634 Fungi 652 An Overview of Animal Diversity 671 An Introduction to Invertebrates 684 The Origin and Evolution of Vertebrates 716 Unit 6 Plant Form and Function 755 Development 756 36 Resource Acquisition and Transport in Vascular Plants 782 37 Soil and Plant Nutrition 803 38 Angiosperm Reproduction and Biotechnology 820 39 Plant Responses to Internal and External Signals 840 Unit 7 Animal Form and Function 870 Unit 3 Genetics 253 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 31 32 33 34 616 35 Vascular Plant Structure, Growth, and Unit 2 The Cell 92 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 28 Protists 591 29 Plant Diversity I: How Plants Colonized Land 30 Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed 551 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function 871 Animal Nutrition 896 Circulation and Gas Exchange 919 The Immune System 950 Osmoregulation and Excretion 975 Hormones and the Endocrine System 997 Animal Reproduction 1017 Animal; Development 1041 Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling 1065 Nervous Systems 1083 Sensory and Motor Mechanisms 1105 Animal Behavior 1137 Unit 8 Ecology 1161 52 53 54 55 56 An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere 1162 Population Ecology 1188 Community Ecology 1212 Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology 1236 Conservation Biology and Global Change 1258 Campbell B IOLO G Y Eleventh Edition Lisa A. Urry Michael L. Cain Steven A. Wasserman Mills College, Oakland, California Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine University of California, San Diego Peter V. Minorsky Jane B. Reece Mercy College, Dobbs Ferry, New York Berkeley, California 330 Hudson Street, New York, NY 10013 Courseware Portfolio Management Director: Beth Wilbur Courseware Portfolio Management Specialist: Josh Frost Courseware Director, Content Development: Ginnie Simione Jutson Supervising Editors: Beth N. Winickoff, Pat Burner Courseware Senior Analysts: John Burner, Mary Ann Murray, Hilair Chism Courseware Specialist: Laura Southworth Development Editor: Mary Hill Director, Content Production and Digital Studio: Erin Gregg Managing Producer, Science: Michael Early Content Producer, Science: Lori Newman Production Management and Composition: Integra Software Services, Inc. Illustrations: Lachina Design Manager: Marilyn Perry Cover and Text Design: Elise Lansdon Rights & Permissions Manager: Ben Ferrini Photo Researcher: Maureen Spuhler Art/Text/Photo Permissions Specialist: Integra Software Services, Inc. Senior Content Developer, MasteringBiology™: Sarah Jensen Senior Rich Media Content Producer: Lee Ann Doctor Rich Media Content Producer: Tod Regan Content Producers: Jackie Jakob, Ziki Dekel Associate Content Producer: Libby Reiser Associate Instructional Designer: Cady Owens Associate Mastering™ Media Producer: Charles Hall Project Manager: Katie Cook VP Product Marketing: Christy Lesko Executive Product Marketing Manager: Lauren Harp Field Marketing Manager: Kelly Galli Manufacturing Buyer: Stacey Weinberger Text & Cover Printer: Courier/Kendallville Cover Photo: Helianthus annuus (cultivated sunflower) Cover Photo Credit: © Radius Images/Getty Images Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected by copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. For information regarding permissions, request forms and the appropriate contacts within the Pearson Education Global Rights & Permissions department, please visit www.pearsoned.com/permissions/. Readers may view, browse, and/or download material for temporary copying purposes only, provided these uses are for noncommercial personal purposes. Except as provided by law, this material may not be further reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, adapted, performed, displayed, published, or sold in whole or in part, without prior written permission from the publisher. Acknowledgments of third-party content appear on page CR-1, which constitutes an extension of this copyright page. PEARSON, ALWAYS LEARNING, MasteringBiology™ and BioFlix® are exclusive trademarks owned by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates in the U.S. and/or other countries. Unless otherwise indicated herein, any third-party trademarks that may appear in this work are the property of their respective owners, and any references to third-party trademarks, logos, or other trade dress are for demonstrative or descriptive purposes only. Such references are not intended to imply any sponsorship, endorsement, authorization, or promotion of Pearson’s products by the owners of such marks, or any relationship between the owner and Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates, authors, licensees, or distributors. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Reece, Jane B., author. | Urry, Lisa A., author. | Campbell, Neil A., 1946-2004, author. Title: Campbell biology / Lisa Urry, Michael Cain, Steven Wasserman, Peter Minorsky, Jane Reece. Description: Eleventh edition. | Hoboken : Pearson Higher Education, 2016. | Previous edition: Campbell biology / Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson. Tenth edition. 2014. | 1st edition: Biology by Neil A. Campbell, 1987. Identifiers: LCCN 2016025573 Subjects: LCSH: Biology. Classification: LCC QH308.2 .C34 2016 | DDC 570—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016025573 1 16 ISBN 10: 0-134-09341-0; ISBN 13: 978-0-134-09341-3 (Student Edition) ISBN 10: 0-134-15412-6; ISBN 13: 978-0-134-15412-1 (Books a la Carte Edition) About the Authors Lisa A. Urry is Professor of Biology and Chair of the Biology Department at Mills College. After earning a B.A. at Tufts University, she completed her Ph.D. at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Lisa has conducted research on gene expression during embryonic and larval development in sea urchins. Deeply committed to promoting opportunities in science for women and underrepresented minorities, she has taught courses ranging from introductory and developmental biology to a nonmajors course called Evolution for Future Presidents. Lisa is a coauthor of Campbell Biology in Focus. Michael L. Cain is an ecologist and evolutionary biologist who is now writing full-time. Michael earned an A.B. from Bowdoin College, an M.Sc. from Brown University, and a Ph.D. from Cornell University. As a faculty member at New Mexico State University, he taught introductory biology, ecology, evolution, botany, and conservation biology. Michael is the author of dozens of scientific papers on topics that include foraging behavior in insects and plants, long-distance seed dispersal, and speciation in crickets. He is a coauthor of Campbell Biology in Focus and of an ecology textbook. Steven A. Wasserman is Professor of Biology at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). He earned an A.B. from Harvard University and a Ph.D. from MIT. Working on the fruit fly Drosophila, Steve has done research on developmental biology, reproduction, and immunity. Having taught genetics, development, and physiology to undergraduate, graduate, and medical students, he now focuses on introductory biology, for which he has been honored with UCSD’s Distinguished Teaching Award. He is a coauthor of Campbell Biology in Focus. Peter V. Minorsky is Professor of Biology at Mercy College in New York, where he teaches introductory biology, ecology, and botany. He received his A.B. from Vassar College and his Ph.D. from Cornell University. Peter taught at Kenyon College, Union College, Western Connecticut State University, and Vassar College; he is also the science writer for the journal Plant Physiology. His research interests concern how plants sense environmental change. Peter received the 2008 Award for Teaching Excellence at Mercy College and is a coauthor of Campbell Biology in Focus. Jane B. Reece, the head of the author team for Editions 8–10 of Campbell BIOLOGY, was Neil Campbell’s longtime collaborator. Jane taught biology at Middlesex County College and Queensborough Community College. She holds an A.B. from Harvard University, an M.S. from Rutgers University, and a Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley. Jane’s research as a doctoral student at UC Berkeley and postdoctoral fellow at Stanford University focused on genetic recombination in bacteria. Besides her work on Campbell BIOLOGY, Jane has been a coauthor on all the Campbell texts. Neil A. Campbell (1946–2004) earned his M.A. from the University of California, Los Angeles, and his Ph.D. from the University of California, Riverside. His research focused on desert and coastal plants. Neil’s 30 years of teaching included introductory biology courses at Cornell University, Pomona College, and San Bernardino Valley College, where he received the college’s first Outstanding Professor Award in 1986. For many years he was also a visiting scholar at UC Riverside. Neil was the founding author of Campbell BIOLOGY. ABOUT THE AUTHORS iii Preface W e are honored to present the Eleventh Edition of Campbell BIOLOGY. For the last three decades, Campbell BIOLOGY has been the leading college text in the biological sciences. It has been translated into 19 languages and has provided millions of students with a solid foundation in college-level biology. This success is a testament not only to Neil Campbell’s original vision but also to the dedication of hundreds of reviewers (listed on pages xxviii–xxxi), who, together with editors, artists, and contributors, have shaped and inspired this work. Our goals for the Eleventh Edition include: increasing visual literacy through new figures, questions, and exercises that build students’ skills in understanding and creating visual representations of biological structures and processes asking students to practice scientific skills by applying scientific skills to real-world problems supporting instructors by providing teaching modules with tools and materials for introducing, teaching, and assessing important and often challenging topics integrating text and media to engage, guide, and inform students in an active process of inquiry and learning Our starting point, as always, is our commitment to crafting text and visuals that are accurate, are current, and reflect our passion for teaching biology. New to This Edition Here we provide an overview of the new features that we have developed for the Eleventh Edition; we invite you to explore pages ix–xxvi for more information and examples. Visualizing Figures and Visual Skills Questions give students practice in interpreting and creating visual representations in biology. The Visualizing Figures have embedded questions that guide students in exploring how diagrams, photographs, and models represent and reflect biological systems and processes. Assignable questions are also available in MasteringBiology to give students practice with the visual skills addressed in the figures. Problem-Solving Exercises challenge students to apply scientific skills and interpret data in solving real-world problems. These exercises are designed to engage students through compelling case studies and provide practice with data analysis skills. Problem-Solving Exercises have assignable versions in MasteringBiology. Some also have iv PREFACE more extensive “Solve It” investigations to further explore a given topic. Ready-to-Go Teaching Modules on key topics provide instructors with assignments to use before and after class, as well as in-class activities that use clickers or Learning Catalytics™ for assessment. Integrated text and media: Media references in the printed book direct students to the wealth of online self-study resources available to them in the Study Area section of MasteringBiology. In eText 2.0 (which will be available for Fall 2017 classes), these resources will also be integrated directly into the eText. The new online learning tools include: Get Ready for This Chapter questions provide a quick check of student understanding of the background information needed to learn a new chapter’s content, with feedback to bolster their preparation. Figure Walkthroughs guide students through key figures with narrated explanations, figure markups, and questions that reinforce important points. Additional questions can be assigned in MasteringBiology. More than 450 animations and videos bring biology to life. These include resources from HHMI BioInteractive that engage students in topics from the discovery of the double helix to evolution. QR codes and URLs within the Chapter Review provide easy access to Vocabulary Self-Quizzes and Practice Tests for each chapter that can be used on smartphones, tablets, and computers. Interviews from the First Edition through the Eleventh Edition of Campbell BIOLOGY are referenced in the chapter where they are most relevant. The interviews show students the human side of science by featuring diverse scientists talking about how they became interested in what they study, how they began, and what inspires them. The impact of climate change at all levels of the biological hierarchy is explored throughout the text, starting with a new figure (Figure 1.12) and discussion in Chapter 1 and concluding with a new Make Connections Figure (Figure 56.30) and expanded coverage on causes and effects of climate change in Chapter 56. As in each new edition of Campbell BIOLOGY, the Eleventh Edition incorporates new content and pedagogical improvements. These are summarized on pp. vi–viii, following this Preface. Content updates reflect rapid, ongoing changes in technology and knowledge in the fields of genomics, gene editing technology (CRISPR), evolutionary biology, microbiology, and more. In addition, significant revisions to Unit 8, Ecology, improve the conceptual framework for core ecological topics (such as population growth, species interactions, and community dynamics) and more deeply integrate evolutionary principles. Our Hallmark Features Teachers of general biology face a daunting challenge: to help students acquire a conceptual framework for organizing an everexpanding amount of information. The hallmark features of Campbell BIOLOGY provide such a framework, while promoting a deeper understanding of biology and the process of science. As such, they are well aligned with the core competencies outlined by the 2009 Vision and Change national conference. Furthermore, the core concepts defined by Vision and Change have close parallels in the unifying themes that are introduced in Chapter 1 and integrated throughout the book. Chief among the themes of both Vision and Change and Campbell BIOLOGY is evolution. Each chapter of this text includes at least one Evolution section that explicitly focuses on evolutionary aspects of the chapter material, and each chapter ends with an Evolution Connection Question and a Write About a Theme Question. To help students distinguish the “forest from the trees,” each chapter is organized around a framework of three to seven carefully chosen Key Concepts. The text, Concept Check Questions, Summary of Key Concepts, and MasteringBiology resources all reinforce these main ideas and essential facts. Because text and illustrations are equally important for learning biology, integration of text and figures has been a hallmark of this text since the First Edition. In addition to the new Visualizing Figures, our popular Exploring Figures and Make Connections Figures epitomize this approach. Each Exploring Figure is a learning unit of core content that brings together related illustrations and text. Make Connections Figures reinforce fundamental conceptual connections throughout biology, helping students overcome tendencies to compartmentalize information. The Eleventh Edition features two new Make Connections Figures. There are also Guided Tour Figures that walk students through complex figures as an instructor would. To encourage active reading of the text, Campbell BIOLOGY includes numerous opportunities for students to stop and think about what they are reading, often by putting pencil to paper to draw a sketch, annotate a figure, or graph data. Active reading questions include Visual Skills Questions, Draw It Questions, Make Connections Questions, What If? Questions, Figure Legend Questions, Summary Questions, Synthesize Your Knowledge Questions, and Interpret the Data Questions. Answering these questions requires students to write or draw as well as think and thus helps develop the core competency of communicating science. Finally, Campbell BIOLOGY has always featured scientific inquiry, an essential component of any biology course. Complementing stories of scientific discovery in the text narrative and the unit-opening interviews, our standard-setting Inquiry Figures deepen the ability of students to understand how we know what we know. Scientific Inquiry Questions give students opportunities to practice scientific thinking, along with the Problem-Solving Exercises, Scientific Skills Exercises, and Interpret the Data Questions. Together, these activities provide students practice in both applying the process of science and using quantitative reasoning, addressing additional core competencies outlined in Vision and Change. MasteringBiology, the most widely used online assessment and tutorial program for biology, provides an extensive library of homework assignments that are graded automatically. In addition to the new Get Ready for This Chapter Questions, Figure Walkthroughs, Problem-Solving Exercises, and Visualizing Figures, MasteringBiology offers Dynamic Study Modules, Adaptive Follow-Up Assignments, Scientific Skills Exercises, Interpret the Data Questions, Solve It Tutorials, HHMI BioInteractive Short Films, BioFlix® Tutorials with 3-D Animations, Experimental Inquiry Tutorials, Interpreting Data Tutorials, BLAST Tutorials, Make Connections Tutorials, Video Field Trips, Video Tutor Sessions, Get Ready for Biology, Activities, Reading Quiz Questions, Student Misconception Questions, 4,500 Test Bank Questions, and MasteringBiology Virtual Labs. MasteringBiology also includes the Campbell BIOLOGY eText, Study Area, Instructor Resources, and Ready-to-Go Teaching Modules. See pages ix–xxiii and www.masteringbiology.com for more details. Our Partnership with Instructors and Students A core value underlying our work is our belief in the importance of a partnership with instructors and students. One primary way of serving instructors and students, of course, is providing a text that teaches biology well. In addition, Pearson offers a rich variety of instructor and student resources, in both print and electronic form (see pp. ix–xxiii). In our continuing efforts to improve the book and its supplements, we benefit tremendously from instructor and student feedback, not only in formal reviews from hundreds of scientists, but also via e-mail and other avenues of informal communication. The real test of any textbook is how well it helps instructors teach and students learn. We welcome comments from both students and instructors. Please address your suggestions to: Lisa Urry (Chapter 1 and Units 1–3) firstname.lastname@example.org Michael Cain (Units 4, 5, and 8) email@example.com Peter Minorsky (Unit 6) firstname.lastname@example.org Steven Wasserman (Unit 7) email@example.com PREFACE v Highlights of New Content T his section highlights selected new content and pedagogical changes in Campbell BIOLOGY, Eleventh Edition. Chapter 1 Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry Chapter 1 opens with a new introduction to a case study on the evolution of coloration in mice. New text and a new photo (Figure 1.12) relate climate change to species survival. Unit 1 The Chemistry of Life In Unit 1, new content engages students in learning this foundational material. The opening of Chapter 3 and new Figure 3.7 show organisms affected by loss of Arctic sea ice. Chapter 5 has updates on lactose intolerance, trans fats, the effects of diet on blood cholesterol, protein Figure 3.7 Effects of climate change sequences and on the Arctic. structures, and intrinsically disordered proteins. New Visualizing Figure 5.16 helps students understand various ways proteins are depicted. A new ProblemSolving Exercise engages students by having them compare DNA sequences in a case of possible fish fraud. Unit 2 The Cell Our main goal for this unit was to make the material more accessible and inviting to students. New Visualizing Figure 6.32 shows the profusion of molecules and structures in a cell, all drawn to scale. In Chapter 7, a new figure illustrates levels of LDL receptors in people with and without familial hypercholesterolemia. Chapter 8 includes a beautiful new photo of a geyser with thermophilic bacteria in Figure 8.17, bringing to life the graphs of optimal temperatures for enzyme function. Chapter 10 discusses current research trying to genetically modify rice (a C3 crop) so that it is capable of carrying out C4 photosynthesis to increase yields. Chapter 11 includes a new Problem-Solving Exercise that guides students through assessing possible new treatments for bacterial infections by blocking quorum sensing. In Chapter 12, the mechanism of chromosome movement in bacteria has been updated and more cell cycle control checkpoints have been added, including one proposed by researchers in 2014. Unit 3 Genetics In Chapters 13–17, we have incorporated changes that help students grasp the more abstract concepts of genetics and their chromosomal and molecular underpinnings. For example, a new Visual Skills Question with Figure 13.6 asks students to identify vi Highlights of New Content where in the three life cycles haploid cells undergo mitosis, and what type of cells are formed. Chapter 14 includes new information from a 2014 genomic study on the number of genes and genetic variants contributing to height. Figure 14.15b now uses “inability to taste PTC” rather than “attached earlobe.” Chapters 14 and 15 are more inclusive, clarifying the meaning of the term “normal” in genetics and explaining that sex is no longer thought to be simply binary. Other updates in Chapter 15 include new research in sex determination and a technique being developed to avoid passing on mitochondrial diseases. New Visualizing Figure 16.7 shows students various ways that DNA is illustrated. Chapter 17 has a new opening photo and story about albino donkeys to pique student interest in gene expression. To help students understand the Beadle and Tatum experiment, new Figure 17.2 explains how they obtained nutritional mutants. A new ProblemSolving Exercise asks students to identify mutations in the insulin gene and predict their effect on the protein. Chapters 18–21 are extensively updated, driven by exciting new discoveries based on DNA sequencing and gene-editing technology. Chapter 18 has updates on histone modifications, nuclear location and the persistence of transcription factories, chromatin remodeling by ncRNAs, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), the role of master regulatory genes in modifying chromatin structure, and the possible role of p53 in the low incidence of cancer in elephants. Make Connections Figure 18.27, “Genomics, Cell Signaling, and Cancer,” has Figure 20.14 Gene editing been expanded to include using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. more information on cell signaling. Chapter 19 features a new section that covers bacterial defenses against bacteriophages and describes the CRISPRCas9 system (Figure 19.7); updates include the Ebola, Chikungunya, and Zika viruses (Figure 19.10) and discovery of the largest virus known to date. A discussion has been added of mosquito transmission of diseases and concerns about the effects of global climate change on disease transmission. Chapter 20 has a new photo of nextgeneration DNA sequencing machines (Figure 20.2) and a new illustration of the widely used technique of RNA sequencing (Figure 20.13). A new section titled Editing Genes and Genomes has been added describing the CRISPR-Cas9 system (Figure 20.14) that has been developed to edit genes in living cells. Information has also been added later in the chapter on use of the CRISPR-Cas9 system, including a study in which a genetic mutation for the disease tyrosinemia was corrected in mice. Finally, the discussion of ethical considerations has been updated to include a recent report of scientists using the CRISPR-Cas9 system to edit a gene in human embryos, along with a discussion of the ethical questions raised by such experiments, such as its usage in the gene drive approach to combat carrying of diseases by mosquitoes. In Chapter 21, in addition to the usual updates of sequence-related data (speed of sequencing, number of species’ genomes sequenced, etc.), there are several research updates, including some early results from the new Roadmap Epigenomics Project and results from a 2015 study focusing on 414 important yeast genes. Unit 4 Mechanisms of Evolution A major goal for this revision was to strengthen how we help students understand and interpret visual representations of evolutionary data and concepts. Toward this end, we have added a new figure (Figure 25.8), “Visualizing the Scale of Geologic Time,” and a new figure (Figure 23.12) on gene flow. Several figures have been revised to improve the presentation of data, including Figure 24.6 (on reproductive isolation in mosquitofish), Figure 24.10 (on allopolyploid speciation), and Figure 25.25 (on the origin of the insect body plan). The Figure 23.12 Gene flow and local unit also features new adaptation in the Lake Erie water material that connects snake (Nerodia sipedon). evolutionary concepts and societal problems. Examples include text in Chapter 22 on the 2015 discovery of teix obactin, an antibiotic that is effective against some hard-to-treat pathogens, a new discussion in Chapter 24 on the impact of climate change on hybrid zones, and a new Problem-Solving Exercise in Chapter 24 on how hybridization may have led to the spread of insecticide resistance genes in mosquitoes that transmit malaria. The unit also includes new chapteropening stories in Chapter 22 (on a moth whose features illustrate the concepts of unity, diversity, and adaptation) and Chapter 25 (on the discovery of whale bones in the Sahara Desert). Additional changes include new text in Concept 22.3 emphasizing how populations can evolve over short periods of time, a new table (Table 23.1) highlighting the five conditions required for a population to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and new material in Concept 25.1 describing how researchers recently succeeded for the first time in constructing a “protocell” in which replication of a template strand of RNA could occur. Unit 5 The Evolutionary History of Biological Diversity In keeping with our goal of improving how students interpret and create visual representations in biology, we have added a new figure (Figure 26.5, “Visualizing Phylogenetic Relationships”) that introduces the visual conventions used in phylogenetic trees and helps students understand what such trees do and don’t convey. Students are also provided many opportunities to practice their visual skills, with more than ten new Visual Skills Questions on topics ranging from interpreting phylogenetic trees to predicting which regions of a bacterial flagellum are hydrophobic. The unit also contains new content on tree thinking, emphasizing such key points as how sister groups provide a clear way to describe evolutionary relationships and how trees do not show a “direction” in evolution. Other major content changes include new text in Concepts 26.6, 27.4, and 28.1 on the 2015 discovery of the Lokiarchaeota, a group of archaea that may represent the sister group of the eukaryotes, new text and a new figure (Figure 26.22) on horizontal gene transfer from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, new text in Concept 27.6 describing the CRISPR-Cas9 system and a new figure (Figure 27.21) that illustrates one example of how CRISPR-Cas 9 technology has opened new avenues of research on HIV, and new material in Concept 29.3 describing how early forests contributed to global climate change (in this case, global cooling). A new ProblemSolving Exercise in Chapter 34 engages students in interpreting data from a study investigating whether frogs can acquire resistance to a fungal pathogen through controlled exposure to it. Other updates include the revision of many phylogenies to reflect recent phylogenomic data, new chapter-opening stories in Chapter 31 (on how mycorrhizae link trees of different species) and Chapter 33 (on the “blue dragon,” a mollusc that preys on the highly toxic Portuguese man-of-war), new text and a new figure (Figure 34.37) on the adaptations of the kangaroo rat to its arid environment, and new material in Concept 34.7, including a new figure (Figure 34.52) describing fossil and DNA evidence indicating that humans and NeanderFigure 34.53 Fossils of hand and thals interbred, producing viable offspring. The foot bones of Homo naledi. discussion of human evolution also includes new text and a new figure (Figure 34.53) on Homo naledi, the most recently discovered member of the human evolutionary lineage. Unit 6 Plant Form and Function A major aim in revising Chapter 35 was to help students better understand how primary and secondary growth are related. New Visualizing Figure 35.11 enables students to picture growth at the cellular level. Also, the terms protoderm, procambium, and ground meristem have been introduced to underscore the transition of meristematic to mature tissues. A new flowchart (Figure 35.24) summarizes growth in a woody shoot. New text and a figure (Figure 35.26) focus on genome analysis of Arabidopsis ecotypes, relating plant morphology to ecology and evolution. In Chapter 36, new Figure 36.8 illustrates the fine branching of leaf veins, and information on Highlights of New Content vii phloem-xylem water transfer has been updated. New Make Connections Figure 37.10 highlights mutualism across kingdoms and domains. Figure 37.13 and the related text include new findings on how some soil nitrogen derives from weathering of rocks. New Figure 38.3 clarifies how the terms carpel and pistil are related. The text on flower structure and the angiosperm life cycle figure identify carpels as megasporophylls and stamens as microsporophylls, correlating with the plant evolution discussion in Unit 5. In Concept 38.3, the current problem of glyphosate-resistant crops is discussed in detail. A revised Figure 39.7 helps students visualize how cells elongate. Figure 39.8 now addresses apical dominance in a Guided Tour format. Information about the role of sugars in controlling apical dominance has been added. In Concept 39.4, a new Problem-Solving Exercise highlights how global climate change affects crop productivity. Figure 39.26 on defense responses against pathogens has been simplified and improved. Unit 7 Animal Form and Function A major goal of the Unit 7 revision was to transform how students interact with and learn from representations of anatomy and physiology. For example, gastrulation is now introduced with a Visualizing Figure (Figure 47.8) that provides a clear and carefully paced introduction to three-dimensional processes that may be difficult for students to grasp. In addition, a number of the new and revised figures help students explore spatial relationships in anatomical contexts, such as the interplay of lymphatic and cardiovascular circulation (Figure 42.15) and the relationship of the limbic system to overall brain structure (Figure 49.14). A new Problem-Solving Exercise in Chapter 45 taps into student interest in medical mysteries through a case study that explores the science behind laboratory testing and diagnosis. Content updates help students appreciate the continued evolution of our understanding of even familiar phenomena, such as the sensation of thirst (Concept 44.4) and the locomotion of kangaroos and jellies (Concept 50.6). Furthermore, new text and figures introduce students to cutting-edge technology relating to such topics as RNA-based antiviral defense in invertebrates (Figure 43.4) and rapid, comprehensive characterization of viral exposure (Figure 43.24), as well as recent discoveries regarding brown fat in adult humans (Figure 40.16), the microbiome (Figure 41.17), parthenogenesis (Concept 46.1), and magnetoreception (Concept 50.1). As always, there is fine-tuning of pedagogy, as in discussions of the complementary roles of inactivation and voltage gating of ion channels during action potential formation (Concept 48.3) and of the experimental characterization of genetic determinants in bird migration (Figure 51.24). Figure 41.17 Variation in human gut microbiome at different life stages. viii Highlights of New Content Unit 8 Ecology The Ecology Unit has been extensively revised for the Eleventh Edition. We have reorganized and improved the conceptual framework with which students are introduced to the following core ecological topics: life tables, per capita population growth, intrinsic rate of increase (“r ”), exponential population growth, logistic population growth, density dependence, species interactions (in particular, parasitism, commensalism, and mutualism), and MacArthur and Wilson’s island biogeography model. The revision also includes a deeper integration of evolutionary principles, including a new Key Concept (52.5) and two new figures (Figures 52.22 and 52.23) on the reciprocal effects of ecology and evolution, new material in Concept 52.4 on how the geographic distributions of species are shaped by a combination of evolutionary history and ecological factors, and five new Make Connections Questions that ask students to examine how ecological and evolutionary mechanisms interact. In keeping with our goal of expanding and strengthening our coverage of climate change, we have added a new discussion and a new figure (Figure 52.20) on how climate change has affected the distribution of a keystone species, a new Figure 55.8 Climate change, section of text in wildfires, and insect outbreaks. Concept 55.2 on how climate change affects NPP, a new figure (Figure 55.8) on how climate change has caused an increase in wildfires and insect outbreaks, a new Problem-Solving Exercise in Chapter 55 that explores how insect outbreaks induced by climate change can cause an ecosystem to switch from a carbon sink to a carbon source, a new figure (Figure 56.29) on the greenhouse effect, new text in Concept 56.4 on biological effects of climate change, and a new Make Connections Figure (Figure 56.30) on how climate change affects all levels of biological organization. Additional updates include a new figure (Figure 53.25) on per capita ecological footprints, a new chapter-opening story in Chapter 54 on a seemingly unlikely mutualism between a shrimp and a much larger predatory fish, new text in Concept 54.1 emphasizing that each partner in a mutualism experiences both benefits and costs, new text in Concept 54.1 describing how the outcome of an ecological interaction can change over time, two new figures (Figures 54.29 and 54.30) on the island equilibrium model, a new figure (Figure 54.31) documenting two shrew species as unexpected hosts of the Lyme disease, new text in Concept 56.1 comparing extinction rates today with those typically seen in the fossil record, and a new discussion and figure (Figure 56.22) on the restoration of a degraded urban stream. Ready-to-Go Teaching Modules for Instructors NEW! Ready-to-Go Teaching Modules help instructors efficiently make use of the best teaching tools before, during, and after class. The Ready-to-Go Teaching Modules incorporate the best that the text, MasteringBiology, and Learning Catalytics have to offer, along with new ideas for in-class activities. The modules can be accessed through the Instructor Resources area of MasteringBiology. Instructors can easily incorporate active learning into their courses using suggested activity ideas and questions. Videos demonstrate how the activities can be used in class. Learning CatalyticsTM allows students to use their smartphone, tablet, or laptop to respond to questions in class. Visit learningcatalytics.com. READY-TO-GO TEACHING MODULES FOR INSTRUCTORS ix See the Big Picture Each chapter is organized around a framework of 3 to 7 Key Concepts that focus on the big picture and provide a context for supporting details. Every chapter opens with a visually dynamic photo accompanied by an intriguing question that invites students into the chapter. The List of Key Concepts introduces the big ideas covered in the chapter. Get Ready for This Chapter NEW! Get Ready for This Chapter questions provide a quick check of students’ knowledge of basic information needed to learn the new content of a chapter, with feedback. After reading a Key Concept section, students can check their understanding using the Concept Check Questions. Questions throughout the chapter encourage students to read the text actively. What If? Questions ask students to apply what they’ve learned. Make Connections Questions ask students to relate content in the chapter to material presented earlier in the course. x SEE THE BIG PICTURE These questions are available as MasteringBiology assignments and as self-study quizzes in the Study Area. The Summary of Key Concepts refocuses students on the main points of the chapter. NEW! QR codes and URLs at the end of every chapter give students quick access to Vocabulary SelfQuizzes and Practice Tests on their smartphones, tablets, and computers. Summary of Key Concepts Questions check students’ understanding of a key idea from each concept. Summary Figures recap key information visually. Evolution, the fundamental theme of biology, is emphasized throughout. Every chapter has a section explicitly relating the chapter content to evolution: Evolution Connection Questions are included in every Chapter Review. Synthesize Your Knowledge Questions ask students to apply their understanding of the chapter content to explain an intriguing photo. SEE THE BIG PICTURE xi Build Visual Skills NEW! Visualizing Figures teach students how to interpret diagrams and models in biology. Embedded questions give students practice applying visual skills as they read the figure. For more practice, each Visualizing Figure is accompanied by an automatically graded assignment in MasteringBiology with feedback for students. Visualizing Figures include: Figure 5.16 Visualizing Proteins, p. 79 Figure 6.32 Visualizing the Scale of the Molecular Machinery in a Cell, pp. 122-123 Figure 16.7 Visualizing DNA, p. 319 Figure 25.8 Visualizing the Scale of Geologic Time, pp. 530-531 Figure 26.5 Visualizing Phylogenetic Relationships, shown at left and on p. 554 Figure 35.11 Visualizing Primary and Secondary Growth, p. 765 Figure 47.8 Visualizing Gastrulation, p. 1048 Figure 55.13 Visualizing Biogeochemical Cycles, p. 1247 NEW! Visual Skills Questions give students practice interpreting illustrations and photos in the text. xii BUILD VISUAL SKILLS NEW! Figure Walkthroughs guide students through key figures with narrated explanations, figure markups, and questions that reinforce important points. A note in the print book lets students and instructors know when a Figure Walkthrough is available in the Study Area. Questions embedded in each Figure Walkthrough encourage students to be active participants in their learning. The Figure Walkthroughs can also be assigned in MasteringBiology with higher-level questions. EXPANDED! Draw It exercises give students practice creating visuals. Students are asked to put pencil to paper and draw a structure, annotate a figure, or graph experimental data. BUILD VISUAL SKILLS xiii Make Connections Visually Eleven Make Connections Figures pull together content from different chapters, providing a visual representation of “big picture” relationships. Make Connections Figures include: Figure 5.26 Contributions of Genomics and Proteomics to Biology, p. 88 Figure 10.23 The Working Cell, pp. 208-209 Figure 18.27 Genomics, Cell Signaling, and Cancer, pp. 390-391 Figure 23.18 The Sickle-Cell Allele, shown at right and on pp. 500-501 Figure 33.9 Maximizing Surface Area, p. 693 NEW! Figure 37.10 Mutualism Across Kingdoms and Domains, p. 811 Figure 39.27 Levels of Plant Defenses Against Herbivores, pp. 866-867 Figure 40.23 Life Challenges and Solutions in Plants and Animals, pp. 892-893 Figure 44.17 Ion Movement and Gradients, p. 991 Figure 55.19 The Working Ecosystem, pp. 1254-1255 NEW! Figure 56.30 Climate Change Has Effects at All Levels of Biological Organization, pp. 1278-1279 NEW! Media references integrated into the text direct students to digital content in the MasteringBiology Study Area that will help them prepare for class and succeed on exams. Video resources include HHMI BioInteractive Short Films (documentaryquality movies from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute) and much more. xiv MAKE CONNECTIONS VISUALLY Make Connections Questions in every chapter ask students to relate content in the chapter to material presented earlier in the course. MAKE CONNECTIONS VISUALLY xv Practice Scientific Skills Scientific Skills Exercises use real data to build key skills needed for biology, including data analysis, graphing, experimental design, and math skills. Each Scientific Skills Exercise is based on an experiment related to the chapter content. Most Scientific Skills Exercises use data from published research, which is cited in the exercise. Questions build in difficulty, walking students through new skills step by step and providing opportunities for higherlevel critical thinking. All Scientific Skills Exercises are available as interactive assignments in MasteringBiology that are automatically graded. Scientific Skills ExerciseS are available for every chapter: 1 Interpreting a Pair of Bar Graphs, p. 23 15 Using the Chi-Square (x2) Test, p. 304 2 Calibrating a Standard Radioactive Isotope Decay Curve and Interpreting Data, p. 33 16 Working with Data in a Table, p. 318 3 Interpreting a Scatter Plot with a Regression Line, p. 54 18 Analyzing DNA Deletion Experiments, p. 373 4 Working with Moles and Molar Ratios, p. 58 5 Analyzing Polypeptide Sequence Data, p. 89 17 Interpreting a Sequence Logo, p. 351 19 Analyzing a DNA Sequence-Based Phylogenetic Tree to Understand Viral Evolution, p. 409 6 Using a Scale Bar to Calculate Volume and Surface Area of a Cell, p. 99 20 Analyzing Quantitative and Spatial Gene Expression Data* 7 Interpreting a Scatter Plot with Two Sets of Data, shown above and on p. 136 22 Making and Testing Predictions, p. 481 8 Making a Line Graph and Calculating a Slope, p. 157 9 Making a Bar Graph and Evaluating a Hypothesis, p. 179 10 Making Scatter Plots with Regression Lines, p. 205 11 Using Experiments to Test a Model* 12 Interpreting Histograms, p. 250 13 Making a Line Graph and Converting Between Units of Data, p. 264 14 Making a Histogram and Analyzing a Distribution Pattern, p. 283 xvi PRACTICE SCIENTIFIC SKILLS 21 Reading an Amino Acid Sequence Identity Table, p. 456 23 Using the Hardy-Weinberg Equation to Interpret Data and Make Predictions, p. 491 24 Identifying Independent and Dependent Variables, Making a Scatter Plot, and Interpreting Data, p. 511 25 Estimating Quantitative Data from a Graph and Developing Hypotheses, p. 536 26 Using Protein Sequence Data to Test an Evolutionary Hypothesis, p. 568 27 Calculating and Interpreting Means and Standard Errors, p. 588 Making a Bar Graph and Interpreting the Data* Apply Scientific Skills to Solving Problems NEW! Problem-Solving Exercises guide students in applying scientific skills and interpreting real data in the context of solving a real-world problem. Problem-Solving Exercises include: Ch. 5: Are you a victim of fish fraud? Shown at left and on p. 89 Ch. 11: Can a skin wound turn deadly? p. 214 Ch. 17: Are insulin mutations the cause of three infants’ neonatal diabetes? p. 359 Ch. 24: Is hybridization promoting insecticide resistance in mosquitoes that transmit malaria? p. 516 Ch. 34: Can declining amphibian populations be saved by a vaccine? p. 731 Ch. 39: How will climate change impact crop productivity? p. 861 Ch. 45: Is thyroid regulation normal in this patient? p. 1008 A version of each Problem-Solving Exercise can also be assigned in MasteringBiology. Ch. 55: Can an insect outbreak threaten a forest’s ability to absorb CO2 from the atmosphere? p. 1243 28 Interpreting Comparisons of Genetic Sequences, p. 593 43 Comparing Two Variables on a Common x-Axis, p. 971 29 Making Bar Graphs and Interpreting Data, p. 627 44 Describing and Interpreting Quantitative Data, p. 979 30 Using Natural Logarithms to Interpret Data, p. 637 45 Designing a Controlled Experiment, p. 1012 31 Interpreting Genomic Data and Generating Hypotheses, p. 655 46 Making Inferences and Designing an Experiment, p. 1028 Synthesizing Information from Multiple Data Sets* 47 Interpreting a Change in Slope, p. 1047 32 Calculating and Interpreting Correlation Coefficients, p. 676 48 Interpreting Data Values Expressed in Scientific Notation, p. 1080 33 Understanding Experimental Design and Interpreting Data, p. 698 49 Designing an Experiment using Genetic Mutants, p. 1093 34 Determining the Equation of a Regression Line, p. 749 51 Testing a Hypothesis with a Quantitative Model, p. 1148 35 Using Bar Graphs to Interpret Data, p. 760 36 Calculating and Interpreting Temperature Coefficients, p. 788 50 Interpreting a Graph with Log Scales, p. 1134 52 Making a Bar Graph and a Line Graph to Interpret Data, p. 1184 37 Making Observations, p. 810 53 Using the Logistic Equation to Model Population Growth, p. 1198 38 Using Positive and Negative Correlations to Interpret Data, p. 832 54 Making a Bar Graph and a Scatter Plot, p. 1215 39 Interpreting Experimental Results from a Bar Graph, p. 862 55 Interpreting Quantitative Data in a Table, p. 1245 40 Interpreting Pie Charts, p. 890 56 Graphing Cyclic Data, p. 1276 41 Interpreting Data from an Experiment with Genetic Mutants, p. 916 42 Making and Interpreting Histograms, p. 936 * Available only in MasteringBiology. All other Scientific Skills Exercises are in the print book, eText, and MasteringBiology. APPLY SCIENTIFIC SKILLS TO SOLVING PROBLEMS xvii Bring Biology to Life NEW! Over 450 carefully chosen and edited videos and animations have been integrated into the print book, MasteringBiology Study Area, and eText 2.0 at point of use to help students learn biology visually. (eText 2.0 will be live for Fall 2017 classes.) Media references in the print book direct students to digital resources in the Study Area and eText 2.0: • • • • NEW! Get Ready for This Chapter questions NEW! Figure Walkthroughs NEW! HHMI BioInteractive Videos and Animations NEW! QR codes and URLs for easy access to Vocabulary Self-Quizzes and Practice Tests • BioFlix Animations • ABC News Videos • Campbell Interviews and much more Access the complete textbook online! The Campbell eText includes powerful interactive and customization functions, such as instructor and student note-taking, highlighting, bookmarking, search, and links to glossary terms. eText 1.0 will be available for Spring 2017 classes. NEW! eText 2.0 will be available for Fall 2017 classes with all of the above plus links to animations, videos, and quizzes, all accessible from a smartphone, tablet, and computer. xviii BRING BIOLOGY TO LIFE Succeed with MasteringBiology MasteringBiology improves results by engaging students before, during, and after class. Before Class Dynamic Study Modules provide students with multiple sets of questions with extensive feedback so that they can test, learn, and retest until they achieve mastery of the textbook material. NEW! Get Ready for This Chapter quizzes help students review content they need to understand from previous chapters (see p. x). Pre-Class Reading Quizzes help students pinpoint concepts that they understand and concepts that they need to review. During Class NEW! For ideas for in-class activities, see the Ready-to-Go Teaching Modules (see p. ix). After Class Hundreds of self-paced tutorials and coaching activities provide students with individualized coaching with specific hints and feedback on the toughest topics in the course. Optional Adaptive Follow-up Assignments are based on each student’s performance on the original MasteringBiology assignment and provide additional questions and activities tailored to each student’s needs. Learning CatalyticsTM allows students to use their smartphone, tablet, or laptop to respond individually or in groups to questions in class. Visit learningcatalytics. com to learn more. SUCCEED WITH MASTERINGBIOLOGY xix Personalized Coaching in MasteringBiology Instructors can assign self-paced MasteringBiology tutorials that provide students with individualized coaching with specific hints and feedback on the toughest topics in the course. 1. If a student gets stuck... 2. Specific wrong-answer feedback appears in the purple feedback box. 3. Hints coach students to the correct response. 4. Optional Adaptive Follow-Up Assignments are based on the original homework assignment and provide additional coaching and practice as needed. Question sets in the Adaptive Follow-Up Assignments continuously adapt to each student’s needs, making efficient use of study time. xx PERSONALIZED COACHING IN MASTERINGBIOLOGY MasteringBiology offers thousands of tutorials, activities, and questions that can be assigned as homework. A few examples are shown below. BioFlix Tutorials use 3-D, moviequality animations and coaching exercises to help students master tough topics outside of class. Animations are also available in the Study Area and eText 2.0, and can be shown in class. EXPANDED! HHMI BioInteractive Short Films, documentary-quality movies from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, engage students in topics from the discovery of the double helix to evolution, with assignable questions. NEW! Galápagos Evolution Video Activities, filmed on the Galápagos Islands by Peter and Rosemary Grant, bring to life the dynamic evolutionary processes that impact Darwin’s finches on Daphne Major Island. Videos explore important concepts and data from the Grants’ field research, with assignable activities. The MasteringBiology Gradebook provides instructors with quick results and easy-to-interpret insights into student performance. Every assignment is automatically graded. Shades of red highlight vulnerable students and challenging assignments. Student scores on the optional Adaptive Follow-Up Assignments are recorded in the gradebook and offer additional diagnostic information for instructors to monitor learning outcomes and more. PERSONALIZED COACHING IN MASTERINGBIOLOGY xxi Student and Lab Supplements For Students Study Guide, Eleventh Edition Get Ready for Biology by Martha R. Taylor, Ithaca, New York, and Michael Pollock, Mount Royal University by Lori K. Garrett, Parkland College 978-0-134-44377-5 / 0-134-44377-2 This engaging workbook helps students brush up on important math and study skills and get up to speed on biological terminology and the basics of chemistry and cell biology. Also available in MasteringBiology. This popular study aid provides concept maps, chapter summaries, word roots, and a variety of interactive activities including multiplechoice, short-answer essay, art labeling, and graph interpretation questions. Inquiry in Action: Interpreting Scientific Papers, Fourth Edition* by Ruth V. Buskirk, University of Texas at Austin and Christopher M. Gillen, Kenyon College 978-0-134-47861-6 / 0-134-47861-4 This guide helps students learn how to read and understand primary research articles. Part A presents complete articles accompanied by questions that help students analyze the article. Related Inquiry Figures are included in the supplement. Part B covers every part of a research paper, explaining the aim of the sections and how the paper works as a whole. Practicing Biology: A Student Workbook, Sixth Edition* by Jean Heitz and Cynthia Giffen, University of Wisconsin, Madison 978-0-134-48603-1 / 0-134-48603-X This workbook offers a variety of activities to suit different learning styles. Activities such as modeling and concept mapping allow students to visualize and understand biological processes. Other activities focus on basic skills, such as reading and drawing graphs. Biological Inquiry: A Workbook of Investigative Cases, Fifth Edition* by Margaret Waterman, Southeast Missouri State University and Ethel Stanley, BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium and Beloit College 978-0-134-48646-8 / 0-134-48646-3 This workbook offers ten investigative cases. Each case study requires students to synthesize information from multiple chapters of the text and apply that knowledge to a real-world scenario as they pose hypotheses, gather new information, analyze evidence, graph data, and draw conclusions. A link to a student website is in the Study Area in MasteringBiology. Study Card, Eleventh Edition 978-0-134-48648-2 / 0-134-48648-X This quick-reference card provides students with an overview of the entire field of biology, helping them see the connections between topics. 978-0-32150057-1 / 0-321-50057-1 A Short Guide to Writing About Biology, Ninth Edition by Jan A. Pechenik, Tufts University 978-0-13414373-6 / 0-134-14373-6 This best-selling writing guide teaches students to think as biologists and to express ideas clearly and concisely through their writing. For Lab Investigating Biology Laboratory Manual, Ninth Edition by Judith Giles Morgan, Emory University, and M. Eloise Brown Carter, Oxford College of Emory University 978-0-13447346-8 / 0-134-47346-9 With its distinctive investigative approach to learning, this best-selling laboratory manual is now more engaging than ever, with full-color art and photos throughout. The lab manual encourages students to participate in the process of science and develop creative and criticalreasoning skills. Annotated Instructor’s Edition for Investigating Biology Laboratory Manual, Ninth Edition 978-0-13451922-7 / 0-134-51922-1 This Annotated Instructor Edition features teaching information including margin notes with suggestions for lab procedures and answers to questions from the Student Edition. Also included is a detailed Teaching Plan at the end of each lab with specific suggestions for organizing labs, including estimated time allotments for each part of the lab and suggestions for encouraging independent thinking and collaborative discussions. Preparation Guide for Investigating Biology, Ninth Edition 978-013451801-5 / 0-134-51801-2 Contains materials lists, suggested vendors, instructions for preparing solutions and constructing materials, schedules for planning advance preparation, and more. Available for downloading through the “Instructor Resources” area of MasteringBiology. Pearson Collections Custom Library gives instructors the By Laura P. Zanello, University of California, Riverside power to create custom lab manuals using Pearson content as well as original materials. Learn more at www.pearsonhighered.com/ collections. 978-0-32183498-0 / 0-321-83498-4 MasteringBiology® Virtual Labs is an online environment Spanish Glossary for Biology This resource provides definitions in Spanish for the glossary terms. Into The Jungle: Great Adventures in the Search for Evolution that promotes critical thinking skills using virtual experiments and explorations that can supplement or substitute for existing wet labs in microscopy, molecular biology, genetics, ecology, and systematics. by Sean B. Carroll, University of Wisconsin, Madison 978-0-32155671-4 / 0-321-55671-2 These nine short tales vividly depict key discoveries in evolutionary biology and the excitement of the scientific process. Online resources available at www.aw-bc.com/carroll. * An Instructor Guide is available for downloading through the “Instructor Resources” area of MasteringBiology. xxii STUDENT AND LAB SUPPLEMENTS Instructor Resources Instructor’s Resource CD/DVD-ROM Set for Campbell Biology, Eleventh Edition 978-0-13445458-0 / 0-134-45458-8 The Instructor’s Resource DVD Package consists of a multi-disk set of assets for each chapter. Specific features include: • Editable figures (art and photos) and tables from the text in PowerPoint® • Prepared PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for each chapter with lecture notes, editable figures (art and photos), tables, and links to animations and videos • JPEG images, including labeled and unlabeled art, photos from the text, and extra photos • Clicker Questions in PowerPoint Customizable PowerPoint Lectures provide a jumpstart for instruction. • 400 instructor animations and videos, including BioFlix® 3-D animations and ABC News Videos • Test Bank questions in TestGen® software and Microsoft® Word • Digital Transparencies • Quick Reference Guide: An at-a-glance reference to all instructor and student media resources available for each chapter The Instructor Resources area of MasteringBiology includes: • NEW! Ready-to-Go Teaching Modules help instructors efficiently make use of the available teaching tools for the toughest topics. Before-class assignments, in-class activities, and afterclass assignments are provided for ease of use. Instructors can incorporate active learning into their course with the suggested activity ideas and clicker questions or Learning Catalytics questions. • Editable figures (art and photos) and tables from the text in PowerPoint • Prepared PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for each chapter with lecture notes, editable figures (art and photos), tables, and links to animations and videos • JPEG images, including labeled and unlabeled art, photos from the text, and extra photos • Clicker Questions in PowerPoint • 400 instructor animations and videos, including BioFlix 3-D animations and ABC News Videos • Test Bank (in Word and TestGen) • Digital Transparencies • Answers to Scientific Skills Exercises, Problem-Solving Exercises, Interpret the Data Questions, and Essay Questions; includes Rubric and Tips for Grading Short-Answer Essays All of the art, graphs, and photos from the text are provided with customizable labels. More than 1,600 photos from the text and other sources are included. • Instructor Guides for Supplements: Instructor Guide for Practicing Biology: A Student Workbook, Instructor Guide for Biological Inquiry: A Workbook of Investigative Cases, Answer Key for Inquiry in Action: Interpreting Scientific Papers, Investigating Biology Lab Prep Guide, and Investigating Biology Lab Data Tables • Quick Reference Guide Printed Test Bank for Campbell Biology, Eleventh Edition 978-0-13447864-7 / 0-134-47864-9 This invaluable resource contains over 4,500 questions, including scenario-based questions and art, graph, and data interpretation questions. In addition to a print version, the Test Bank is available electronically through the “Instructor Resources” area of MasteringBiology, and in the Instructor’s Resource DVD Package. Clicker Questions can be used to stimulate effective classroom discussions (for use with or without clickers). INSTRUCTOR RESOURCES xxiii Featured Figures Visualizing Figures 5.16 Visualizing Proteins 79 6.32 Visualizing the Scale of the Molecular Machinery in a Cell 122 16.7 Visualizing DNA 319 25.8 Visualizing the Scale of Geologic Time 530 26.5 Visualizing Phylogenetic Relationships 554 35.11 Visualizing Primary and Secondary Growth 765 47.8 Visualizing Gastrulation 1048 55.13 Visualizing Biogeochemical Cycles 1247 Make Connections Figures 5.26 Contributions of Genomics and Proteomics to Biology 88 10.23 The Working Cell 208 18.27 Genomics, Cell Signaling, and Cancer 390 23.18 The Sickle-Cell Allele 500 33.9 Maximizing Surface Area 693 37.10 Mutualism Across Kingdoms and Domains 811 39.27 Levels of Plant Defenses Against Herbivores 866 40.23 Life Challenges and Solutions in Plants and Animals 892 44.17 Ion Movement and Gradients 991 55.19 The Working Ecosystem 1254 56.30 Climate Change Has Effects at All Levels of Biological Organization 1278 Exploring Figures 1.3 5.18 6.3 6.8 6.30 7.19 11.8 12.7 13.8 16.22 Levels of Biological Organization 4 Levels of Protein Structure 80 Microscopy 95 Eukaryotic Cells 100 Cell Junctions in Animal Tissues 120 Endocytosis in Animal Cells 140 Cell-Surface Transmembrane Receptors 218 Mitosis in an Animal Cell 238 Meiosis in an Animal Cell 260 Chromatin Packing in a Eukaryotic Chromosome 330 24.3 Reproductive Barriers 506 25.7 The Origin of Mammals 529 27.16 Selected Major Groups of Bacteria 582 28.2 Protistan Diversity 594 29.3 Derived Traits of Plants 618 29.8 Bryophyte Diversity 624 29.14 Seedless Vascular Plant Diversity 630 30.7 Gymnosperm Diversity 640 30.17 Angiosperm Diversity 648 xxiv FEATURED FIGURES 31.10 33.3 33.43 34.42 35.10 37.16 38.4 38.12 40.5 41.5 44.12 46.11 49.11 50.10 50.17 52.2 52.3 52.12 52.15 53.18 Fungal Diversity 659 Invertebrate Diversity 685 Insect Diversity 710 Mammalian Diversity 742 Examples of Differentiated Plant Cells 762 Unusual Nutritional Adaptations in Plants 817 Flower Pollination 822 Fruit and Seed Dispersal 830 Structure and Function in Animal Tissues 875 Four Main Feeding Mechanisms of Animals 901 The Mammalian Excretory System 984 Human Gametogenesis 1026 The Organization of the Human Brain 1090 The Structure of the Human Ear 1111 The Structure of the Human Eye 1116 The Scope of Ecological Research 1163 Global Climate Patterns 1164 Terrestrial Biomes 1171 Aquatic Biomes 1177 Mechanisms of Density-Dependent Regulation 1202 55.14 Water and Nutrient Cycling 1248 55.17 Restoration Ecology Worldwide 1252 Inquiry Figures 1.25 Does camouflage affect predation rates on two populations of mice? 21 4.2 Can organic molecules form under conditions estimated to simulate those on the early Earth? 57 7.4 Do membrane proteins move? 128 † 10.10 Which wavelengths of light are most effective in driving photosynthesis? 194 12.9 At which end do kinetochore microtubules shorten during anaphase? 241 12.14 Do molecular signals in the cytoplasm regulate the cell cycle? 245 14.3 When F1 hybrid pea plants self- or cross-pollinate, which traits appear in the F2 generation? 271 14.8 Do the alleles for one character segregate into gametes dependently or independently of the alleles for a different character? 276 † 15.4 In a cross between a wild-type female fruit fly and a mutant white-eyed male, what color eyes will the F1 and F2 offspring have? 297 15.9 How does linkage between two genes affect inheritance of characters? 301 16.2 Can a genetic trait be transferred between different bacterial strains? 315 16.4 Is protein or DNA the genetic material of phage T2? 316 *†16.11 Does DNA replication follow the conservative, semiconservative, or dispersive model? 322 17.3 Do individual genes specify the enzymes that function in a biochemical pathway? 337 18.22 Could Bicoid be a morphogen that determines the anterior end of a fruit fly? 385 19.2 What causes tobacco mosaic disease? 397 20.16 Can the nucleus from a differentiated animal cell direct development of an organism? 427 20.21 Can a fully differentiated human cell be “deprogrammed” to become a stem cell? 430 21.18 What is the function of a gene (FOXP2) that is rapidly evolving in the human lineage? 459 22.13 Can a change in a population’s food source result in evolution by natural selection? 475 *23.16 Do females select mates based on traits indicative of “good genes”? 498 24.7 Can divergence of allopatric populations lead to reproductive isolation? 510 24.12 Does sexual selection in cichlids result in reproductive isolation? 513 24.18 How does hybridization lead to speciation in sunflowers? 519 25.26 What causes the loss of spines in lake stickleback fish? 544 26.6 What is the species identity of food being sold as whale meat? 555 27.10 Can prokaryotes evolve rapidly in response to environmental change? 576 28.24 What is the root of the eukaryotic tree? 609 29.9 Can bryophytes reduce the rate at which key nutrients are lost from soils? 625 31.20 Do fungal endophytes benefit a woody plant? 665 33.30 Did the arthropod body plan result from new Hox genes? 705 34.51 Did gene flow occur between Neanderthals and humans? 751 36.18 Does phloem sap contain more sugar near sources than near sinks? 799 37.11 How variable are the compositions of bacterial communities inside and outside of roots? 812 39.5 What part of a grass coleoptile senses light, and how is the signal transmitted? 845 39.6 What causes polar movement of auxin from shoot tip to base? 846 39.16 How does the order of red and far-red illumination affect seed germination? 855 40.17 How does a Burmese python generate heat while incubating eggs? 886 40.22 What happens to the circadian clock during hibernation? 891 *41.4 Can diet influence the frequency of birth defects? 900 42.25 What causes respiratory distress syndrome? 942 44.20 Can aquaporin mutations cause diabetes? 993 46.8 † 47.4 47.23 47.24 47.26 50.23 51.8 51.24 53.14 † 54.3 54.18 55.6 55.12 *56.13 Why is sperm usage biased when female fruit flies mate twice? 1022 Does the distribution of Ca2+ in an egg correlate with formation of the fertilization envelope? 1044 How does distribution of the gray crescent affect the developmental potential of the first two daughter cells? 1059 Can the dorsal lip of the blastopore induce cells in another part of the amphibian embryoto change their developmental fate? 1060 What role does the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) play in limb pattern formation in vertebrates? 1061 How do mammals detect different tastes? 1121 Does a digger wasp use landmarks to find her nest? 1143 Are differences in migratory orientation within a species genetically determined? 1155 How does caring for offspring affect parental survival in kestrels? 1199 Can a species’ niche be influenced by interspecific competition? 1214 Is Pisaster ochraceus a keystone species? 1224 Which nutrient limits phytoplankton production along the coast of Long Island? 1241 How does temperature affect litter decomposition in an ecosystem? 1246 What caused the drastic decline of the Illinois greater prairie chicken population? 1265 Research Method Figures 5.21 6.4 10.9 13.3 14.2 14.7 15.11 20.3 20.7 20.11 26.15 35.21 37.7 48.8 53.2 54.12 X-Ray Crystallography 83 Cell Fractionation 96 Determining an Absorption Spectrum 193 Preparing a Karyotype 256 Crossing Pea Plants 270 The Testcross 275 Constructing a Linkage Map 305 Sequencing by Synthesis: Next-Generation Sequencing 415 The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) 419 RT-PCR Analysis of the Expression of Single Genes 423 Applying Parsimony to a Problem in Molecular Systematics 561 Using Dendrochronology to Study Climate 771 Hydroponic Culture 808 Intracellular Recording 1070 Determining Population Size Using the MarkRecapture Method 1189 Determining Microbial Diversity Using Molecular Tools 1221 *The Inquiry Figure, original research paper, and a worksheet to guide you through the paper are provided in Inquiry in Action: Interpreting Scientific Papers, Fourth Edition. † A related Experimental Inquiry Tutorial can be assigned in MasteringBiology.® FEATURED FIGURES xxv Interviews Unit 1 The Chemistry of Life 27 Lovell Jones Prairie View A&M University and University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Unit 2 The Cell 92 University of Texas at Austin Unit 6 Plant Form And Function 755 Philip Benfey New Mexico State University Duke University Unit 7 Animal Form And Function 870 Shirley Tilghman Harald zur Hausen Princeton University German Cancer Research Center Unit 4 Mechanisms of Evolution 465 INTERVIEWS Nancy Moran Elba Serrano Unit 3 Genetics 253 xxvi Unit 5 T he Evolutionary History of Biological Diversity 550 Unit 8 Ecology 1161 Jack Szostak Tracy Langkilde Harvard University Penn State University Acknowledgments T he authors wish to express their gratitude to the global community of instructors, researchers, students, and publishing professionals who have contributed to the Eleventh Edition of Campbell BIOLOGY. As authors of this text, we are mindful of the daunting challenge of keeping up to date in all areas of our rapidly expanding subject. We are grateful to the many scientists who helped shape this text by discussing their research fields with us, answering specific questions in their areas of expertise, and sharing their ideas about biology education. We are especially grateful to the following, listed alphabetically: Graham Alexander, John Archibald, Kristian Axelsen, Barbara Bowman, Joanne Chory, Roger Craig, Michael Hothorn, Patrick Keeling, Barrett Klein, Rachel Kramer Green, James Nieh, Kevin Peterson, T.K. Reddy, Andrew Roger, Alastair Simpson, Marty Taylor, and Elisabeth Wade. In addition, the biologists listed on pages xxviii–xxxi provided detailed reviews, helping us ensure the text’s scientific accuracy and improve its pedagogical effectiveness. We thank Michael Pollock, author of the Study Guide, for his many contributions to the accuracy, clarity, and consistency of the text; and we thank Carolyn Wetzel, Ruth Buskirk, Joan Sharp, Jennifer Yeh, and Charlene D’Avanzo for their contributions to the Scientific Skills Exercises and Problem-Solving Exercises. Thanks also to the other professors and students, from all over the world, who contacted the authors directly with useful suggestions. We alone bear the responsibility for any errors that remain, but the dedication of our consultants, reviewers, and other correspondents makes us confident in the accuracy and effectiveness of this text. Interviews with prominent scientists have been a hallmark of Campbell BIOLOGY since its inception, and conducting these interviews was again one of the great pleasures of revising the book. To open the eight units of this edition, we are proud to include interviews with Lovell Jones, Elba Serrano, Shirley Tilghman, Jack Szostak, Nancy Moran, Philip Benfey, Harald zur Hausen, and Tracy Langkilde. We are especially grateful to Rebecca Orr for her hard work on the digital resources for the eText, Study Area, and Ready-to-Go Teaching Modules. And thanks to the rest of the Ready-to-Go Teaching Modules team: Molly Jacobs, Karen Resendes, Eileen Gregory, Angela Hodgson, Maureen Leupold, Jennifer Metzler, Allison Silveus, Jered Studinski, Sara Tallarovic, Judy Schoonmaker, Michael Pollock, and Chad Brassil. We would also like to extend our sincere appreciation to Carolyn Wetzel, Jennifer Yeh, Matt Lee, and Sherry Seston for their hard work on the Figure Walkthroughs. And our gratitude goes to Katie Cook for keeping these projects so well organized. Thanks also to Kaddee Lawrence for writing the questions that accompany the Visualizing Figures in MasteringBiology and to Mikaela Schmitt-Harsh for converting the Problem-Solving Exercises to MasteringBiology tutorials. The value of Campbell BIOLOGY as a learning tool is greatly enhanced by the supplementary materials that have been created for instructors and students. We recognize that the dedicated authors of these materials are essentially writing mini (and not so mini) books. We appreciate the hard work and creativity of all the authors listed, with their creations, on page xxii. We are also grateful to Kathleen Fitzpatrick and Nicole Tunbridge (PowerPoint® Lecture Presentations); Roberta Batorsky, Douglas Darnowski, James Langeland, and David Knochel (Clicker Questions); Sonish Azam, Kevin Friesen, Murty Kambhampati, Janet Lanza, Ford Lux, Chris Romero, Ruth Sporers, and David Knochel (Test Bank); Natalie Bronstein, Linda Logdberg, Matt McArdle, Ria Murphy, Chris Romero, and Andy Stull (Dynamic Study Modules); and Eileen Gregory, Rebecca Orr, and Elena Pravosudova (Adaptive Follow-up Assignments). MasteringBiology™ and the other electronic accompaniments for this text are invaluable teaching and learning aids. We thank the hardworking, industrious instructors who worked on the revised and new media: Roberta Batorsky, Beverly Brown, Erica Cline, Willy Cushwa, Tom Kennedy, Tom Owens, Michael Pollock, Frieda Reichsman, Rick Spinney, Dennis Venema, Carolyn Wetzel, Heather Wilson-Ashworth, and Jennifer Yeh. We are also grateful to the many other people—biology instructors, editors, and production experts—who are listed in the credits for these and other elements of the electronic media that accompany the text. Campbell BIOLOGY results from an unusually strong synergy between a team of scientists and a team of publishing professionals. Our editorial team at Pearson Education again demonstrated unmatched talents, commitment, and pedagogical insights. Our Courseware Portfolio Management Specialist, Josh Frost, brought publishing savvy, intelligence, and a much-appreciated level head to leading the whole team. The clarity and effectiveness of every page owe much to our extraordinary Supervising Editors Beth Winickoff and Pat Burner, who worked with a top-notch team of Courseware Senior Analysts in John Burner, Mary Ann Murray, Mary Hill, Laura Southworth, and Hilair Chism. Our unsurpassed Courseware Director of Content Development Ginnie Simione Jutson and Courseware Portfolio Management Director Beth Wilbur were indispensable in moving the project in the right direction. We also want to thank Robin Heyden for organizing the annual Biology Leadership Conferences and keeping us in touch with the world of AP Biology. You would not have this beautiful text if not for the work of the production team: Director of Product Management Services Erin Gregg; Managing Producer Michael Early; Content Producer Lori Newman; Photo Researcher Maureen Spuhler; Copy Editor Joanna Dinsmore; Proofreader Pete Shanks; Rights & Permissions Manager Ben Ferrini; Managing Editor Angel Chavez and the rest of the staff at Integra Software Services, Inc.; Art Production Manager Rebecca Marshall, Artist Kitty Auble, and the rest of the staff at Lachina; Design Manager Marilyn Perry; Text and Cover Designer Elise Lansdon; and Manufacturing Buyer Stacey Weinberger. We also thank those who worked on the text’s supplements: Josey Gist, Margaret Young, Kris Langan, Pete Shanks, Crystal Clifton and Jennifer Hastings at Progressive Publishing Alternatives, and Margaret McConnell at Integra. And for creating the wonderful package of electronic media that accompanies the text, we are grateful to Tania Mlawer, Sarah Jensen, Charles Hall, Katie Foley, Laura Tommasi, Lee Ann Doctor, Tod Regan, Libby Reiser, Jackie Jakob, Sarah YoungDualan, Cady Owens, Caroline Ayres, Katie Cook, and Ziki Dekel as well as VP of Production and Digital Studio Lauren Fogel and Director of Digital Content Development Portfolio Management Stacy Treco. For their important roles in marketing the text and media, we thank Christy Lesko, Lauren Harp, Kelly Galli, and Jane Campbell. For her market development support, we thank Jessica Moro. We are grateful to Adam Jaworski, VP Portfolio Management, Science, and Paul Corey, Managing Director, Higher Education Courseware, for their enthusiasm, encouragement, and support. The Pearson sales team, which represents Campbell BIOLOGY on campus, is an essential link to the users of the text. They tell us what you like and don’t like about the text, communicate the features of the text, and provide prompt service. We thank them for their hard work and professionalism. For representing our text to our international audience, we thank our sales and marketing partners throughout the world. They are all strong allies in biology education. Finally, we wish to thank our families and friends for their encouragement and patience throughout this long project. Our special thanks to Ross, Lily, and Alex (L.A.U.); Debra and Hannah (M.L.C.); Aaron, Sophie, Noah, and Gabriele (S.A.W.); Natalie (P.V.M.); and Paul, Dan, Maria, Armelle, and Sean (J.B.R.). And, as always, thanks to Rochelle, Allison, Jason, McKay, and Gus. Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, and Jane B. Reece ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xxvii Reviewers Eleventh Edition Reviewers Steve Abedon, Ohio State University John Alcock, Arizona State University Philip Allman, Florida Gulf Coast College Rodney Allrich, Purdue University Jim Barron, Montana State University Billings Stephen Bauer, Belmont Abbey College Aimee Bernard, University of Colorado Denver Teresa Bilinski, St. Edward’s University Sarah Bissonnette, University of California, Berkeley Jeffery Bowen, Bridgewater State University Scott Bowling, Auburn University David Broussard, Lycoming College Tessa Burch, University of Tennessee Warren Burggren, University of North Texas Patrick Cafferty, Emory University Michael Campbell, Penn State University Jeffrey Carmichael, University of North Dakota P. Bryant Chase, Florida State University Steve Christenson, Brigham Young University Curt Coffman, Vincennes University Bill Cohen, University of Kentucky Sean Coleman, University of the Ozarks Erin Connolly, University of South Carolina Ron Cooper, University of California, Los Angeles Curtis Daehler, University of Hawaii at Manoa Deborah Dardis, Southeastern Louisiana University Douglas Darnowski, Indiana University Southeast Jeremiah Davie, D’Youville College Melissa Deadmond, Truckee Meadows Community College Jennifer Derkits, J. Sergeant Reynolds Community College Jean DeSaix, University of Northern Carolina Kevin Dixon, Florida State University David Dunbar, Cabrini College Anna Edlund, Lafayette College Rob Erdman, Florida Gulf Coast College Dale Erskine, Lebanon Valley College Susan Erster, Stony Brook University Linda Fergusson-Kolmes, Portland Community College, Sylvania Campus Danilo Fernando, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse Christina Fieber, Horry-Georgetown Technical College Melissa Fierke, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry Mark Flood, Fairmont State University Robert Fowler, San Jose State University Stewart Frankel, University of Hartford Eileen Gregory, Rollins College Gokhan Hacisalihoglu, Florida A&M University Monica Hall-Woods, St. Charles Community College Jean Hardwick, Ithaca College Deborah Harris, Case Western Reserve University Chris Haynes, Shelton State Community College Albert Herrera, University of Southern California Karen Hicks, Kenyon College Elizabeth Hobson, New Mexico State University Mark Holbrook, University of Iowa Erin Irish, University of Iowa Sally Irwin, University of Hawaii, Maui College Jamie Jensen, Brigham Young University Jerry Johnson, Corban University Ann Jorgensen, University of Hawaii Ari Jumpponen, Kansas State University Doug Kane, Defiance College Kasey Karen, Georgia College & State University Paul Kenrick, Natural History Museum, London Stephen T. Kilpatrick, University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown Shannon King, North Dakota State University Karen M. Klein, Northampton Community College Jacob Krans, Western New England University Dubear Kroening, University of Wisconsin Barbara Kuemerle, Case Western Reserve University Jim Langeland, Kalamazoo College Grace Lasker, Lake Washington Institute of Technology Jani Lewis, State University of New York at Geneseo Eric W. Linton, Central Michigan University Tatyana Lobova, Old Dominion University David Longstreth, Louisiana State University Donald Lovett, College of New Jersey Lisa Lyons, Florida State University Mary Martin, Northern Michigan University xxviii REVIEWERS Scott Meissner, Cornell University Jenny Metzler, Ball State University Grace Miller, Indiana Wesleyan University Jonathan Miller, Edmonds Community College Mill Miller, Wright State University Barbara Nash, Mercy College Karen Neal, J. Sargeant Reynolds Community College, Richmond Shawn Nordell, Saint Louis University Olabisi Ojo, Southern University at New Orleans Fatimata Pale, Thiel College Susan Parrish, McDaniel College Eric Peters, Chicago State University Jarmila Pittermann, University of California, Santa Cruz Jason Porter, University of the Sciences in Philadelphia Elena Pravosudova, University of Nevada, Reno Steven Price, Virginia Commonwealth University Samiksha Raut, University of Alabama at Birmingham Robert Reavis, Glendale Community College Wayne Rickoll, University of Puget Sound Luis Rodriguez, San Antonio College Kara Rosch, Blinn College Scott Russell, University of Oklahoma Jodi Rymer, College of the Holy Cross Per Salvesen, University of Bergen Davison Sangweme, University of North Georgia Karin Scarpinato, Georgia Southern University Cara Schillington, Eastern Michigan University David Schwartz, Houston Community College Carrie Schwarz, Western Washington University Joan Sharp, Simon Fraser University Alison Sherwood, University of Hawaii at Manoa Eric Shows, Jones County Junior College Brian Shmaefsky, Lone Star College John Skillman, California State University, San Bernardino Rebecca Sperry, Salt Lake Community College Clint Springer, Saint Joseph’s University Mark Sturtevant, Oakland University Diane Sweeney, Punahou School Kristen Taylor, Salt Lake Community College Rebecca Thomas, College of St. Joseph Martin Vaughan, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis Meena Vijayaraghavan, Tulane University James T. Warren Jr.., Pennsylvania State University Jim Wee, Loyola University, New Orleans Charles Wellman, Sheffield University Christopher Whipps, State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry Philip White, James Hutton Institute Jessica White-Phillip, Our Lady of the Lake University Robert Yost, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis Tia Young, Pennsylvania State University Reviewers of Previous Editions Kenneth Able, State University of New York, Albany; Thomas Adams, Michigan State University; Martin Adamson, University of British Columbia; Dominique Adriaens, Ghent University; Ann Aguanno, Marymount Manhattan College; Shylaja Akkaraju, Bronx Community College of CUNY; Marc Albrecht, University of Nebraska; John Alcock, Arizona State University; Eric Alcorn, Acadia University; George R. 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